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Les végétations des côtes Manche-Atlantique françaises : essai de typologie et de cartographie dynamico-caténales

Abstract : Since 2011, the French Ministry of Environment, Energy and Sea has launched a national program aimed on habitats and vegetation mapping (CarHAB), based on the dynamic-catenal phytosociological approach. The purpose of this program is to produce a 1: 25 000 scaled map of the natural and semi-natural vegetation of metropolitan France by 2025. The dynamiccatenal phytosociology, which originated in 1973, has emerged as the most appropriate method to fulfill these objectives. Even though the principles and methods of landscape phytosociology to study vegetation dynamics are quite commonly used in Europe, this science remains underdeveloped in France. Within this context, the Channel-Atlantic coasts have been selected as test areas, due to the diversity of ecological gradients governing the spatial organization of different coastal plant communities on the one hand, and to their great heritage value on the other hand.This thesis presents a methodology to identify, characterize and map vegetation geopermaseries, minoriseries and geominoriseries of the Channel-Atlantic coastlines.This study begins by a state of the art presenting the concepts and the state of knowledge in the field of phytosociology and landscape phytosociology. It provides some answers regarding both to methodological techniques for characterization of series and geoseries and mapping of their individuals, and to landscape phytosociology applications.The analysis of the general features of coastlines shows the inherent characteristics of these environments, mainly related to wind and salinity exposure and edaphic conditions. The importance of geology, geomorphology and climate in the differentiation of the various plant coastal associations is demonstrated. The identification of the role of uses in the structure and the evolution of vegetation justifies the need to take current and former human activities into consideration for describing series and geoseries.The general methodological principles of landscape phytosociology are transposed and adapted to the coastal vegetations. The different categories of identified series and geoseries are described through typological sheets (features of the characteristic association, geology, geomorphology, bioclimate, chorology, dynamics). The mapping of individuals of different categories of series is displayed in a cartographic atlas.Twenty-three landscape units have been defined, based on the distribution of the identified series and geoseries.A bioevaluation method is proposed and tested on a set of saltmarshes sites of the Channel- Atlantic French coastline, in a conservation objective. A first assessment of coastal geopermaseries heritage is proposed, in order to elaborate a series and geoseries red list.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01523769, version 1

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Charlotte Demartini. Les végétations des côtes Manche-Atlantique françaises : essai de typologie et de cartographie dynamico-caténales. Géographie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BRES0112⟩. ⟨tel-01523769⟩

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