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Loop extrusion as a mechanism for DNA Double-Strand Breaks repair foci formation

Résumé : DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) repair is essential to safeguard genome integrity. Upon DSBs, the ATM PI3K kinase rapidly triggers the establishment of megabase-sized, γH2AX-decorated chromatin domains which further act as seeds for the formation of DNA Damage Response (DDR) foci 1 . How these foci are rapidly assembled in order to establish a “repair-prone” environment within the nucleus is yet unclear. Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) are a key feature of 3D genome organization that regulate transcription and replication, but little is known about their contribution to DNA repair processes 2,3 . Here we found that TADs are functional units of the DDR, instrumental for the correct establishment of γH2AX/53BP1 chromatin domains in a manner that involves one-sided cohesin-mediated loop extrusion on both sides of the DSB. We propose a model whereby H2AX-containing nucleosomes are rapidly phosphorylated as they actively pass by DSB-anchored cohesin. Our work highlights the critical impact of chromosome conformation in the maintenance of genome integrity and provides the first example of a chromatin modification established by loop extrusion.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02991048
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 5, 2020 - 6:23:08 PM
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Coline Arnould, Vincent Rocher, Thomas Clouaire, Pierre Caron, Philippe Mangeot, et al.. Loop extrusion as a mechanism for DNA Double-Strand Breaks repair foci formation. 2020. ⟨hal-02991048⟩

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