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Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for heart graft dysfunction in adults: incidence, risk factors and outcomes in a multicentric study

Abstract : BACKGROUND: The decision about whether to use venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) in patients with cardiac graft dysfunction (GD) is usually made on a case-by-case basis and is guided by the team’s experience. We aimed to determine the incidence of VA-ECMO use after heart transplantation (HT), to assess early- and long-term outcomes and to assess risk factors for the need for VA-ECMO and early mortality in these patients. METHODS: We included adults who underwent heart transplantation at 3 cardiac centres who met the most recent International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation definition of graft dysfunction (GD) over a 10-year period. Pre-transplant, intraoperative and posttransplant characteristics of the heart recipients as well as donor characteristics were analyzed and compared among recipients with GD treated with and without VA-ECMO. RESULTS: There were 135 patients with GD in this study, of whom 66 were treated with VA-ECMO and 69 were not. The mean follow-up averaged 81.2 months (standard deviation 36 mo, range 0-184 mo); follow-up was complete in 100% of patients. The overall incidence of GD (30%) and of VA-ECMO use increased over the study period. We did not identify any predictive pre-transplantation factors for VA-ECMO use, but patients who required VA-ECMO had higher serum lactate levels and higher inotropes doses after HT. The overall survival rates were 83% and 42% at 1 year and 78% and 40% at 5 years among patients who received only medical treatment and those who received VA-ECMO, respectively. Delayed initiation of VA-ECMO and postoperative bleeding were strongly associated with increased in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of GD increased over the study period, and the need for VA-ECMO among patients with GD remains difficult to predict. In-hospital mortality decreased over time but remained high among patients who required VA-ECMO, especially among patients with delayed initiation of VA-ECMO.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03423370
Contributor : Laurent Jonchère Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Wednesday, November 10, 2021 - 9:45:29 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, November 11, 2021 - 4:00:12 AM

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Pierre-Emmanuel Noly, Mélanie Hébert, Yoan Lamarche, Jorge Robles Cortes, Marion Mauduit, et al.. Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for heart graft dysfunction in adults: incidence, risk factors and outcomes in a multicentric study. Canadian Journal of Surgery, Canadian Medical Association, 2021, 64 (6), pp.E567-E577. ⟨10.1503/cjs.021319⟩. ⟨hal-03423370⟩

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