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Effets sanitaires de l'exposition aux sous-produits de chloration de l'eau

Abstract : Background. Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant for drinking water treatment. During treatment process, the natural organic matter present in water reacts with chlorine to form disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), the most occurring ones. Several identified DBPs were recognized carcinogens or fetotoxic in animals. We conducted two epidemiological studies to assess the health effects of human exposure to DBPs regarding cancer and reproduction. Association between THM exposure and the risk of bladder cancer: a pooled analysis of 3 European case-control studies. The study included 2381 cases and 3086 controls from 3 case-control studies (France, Finland, Spain). Environmental exposure to SPCs was measured by THM concentrations in water distribution systems, retrospectively estimated through the 40-year exposure window. Information about water uses (tap water ingestion, showers and baths, swimming-pool attendance) was available. An increased risk of bladder cancer was observed, in men only, with increasing THM concentrations in water systems and duration of exposure to chlorinated surface water. No association was observed with exposure through tap water ingestion. Exposure through showers, baths and swimming in pools (available in Spanish study only) was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Three North-American case-control studies were joined to the three European ones into a meta-regression. No specific dose-response relationship was identified for European studies. A global dose-response relationship was consequently estimated, including 4351 cases and 7055 controls. Association between DBP exposure and the risk of preterm birth and Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR). This study was conducted within the PELAGIE cohort (3400 pregnant women included in early pregnancy, in Brittany, France, between 2002 and 2006). Exposure during pregnancy was measured by 2 indicators: THM concentrations in water distribution systems and a biomarker of HAA ingestion, the level of trichloroacetic acid in maternal urine at inclusion (in a nested case-control study). The regulatory database SISE-Eaux was used to estimate THMs concentrations in the water distribution systems. Water uses during pregnancy (ingested tap water, swimming-pool attendance, showers and bath frequencies and duration) were collected with questionnaires. Our results suggest an association between prenatal exposure to DBPs (THMs and HAAs) and the risk of IUGR. No association was found with the risk of preterm birth.
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Submitted on : Monday, January 13, 2014 - 3:17:36 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00927735, version 1


Nathalie Costet-Deiber. Effets sanitaires de l'exposition aux sous-produits de chloration de l'eau. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Rennes 1, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013REN1B008⟩. ⟨tel-00927735⟩



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