. Agab, Geobacillus stearothermophilus ?-galactosidase B; Tm?Gal: Thermotoga maritima ?galactosidase ; GH36: Glycosyl Hydrolase family 36; WT: wild type; GalGal-pNP: 4- nitrophenyl-(?-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1,6)-?-D-galactopyranoside; ?-Gal-pNP: 4-nitrophenyl- ?-D-galactopyranosyl; ?-Gal-F: ?-Galactosyl-fluoride, p.?-galactosyl-azide

J. Andersen, R. Barrangou, A. Hachem, M. Lahtinen, S. Goh et al., Transcriptional analysis of oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04, BMC Genomics, vol.14, issue.1, p.312, 2013.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2164-14-312

C. Andre, P. Spangenberg, and C. Rabiller, In situ 19F NMR spectroscopy study of enzymatic transglycosylation reactions using ??-d-aldohexopyranosyl fluorides as donors and acceptors, Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, vol.12, issue.5, pp.779-783, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0957-4166(01)00120-3

R. Astronomo and D. Burton, Carbohydrate vaccines: developing sweet solutions to sticky situations?, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol.73, issue.4, pp.308-324, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nrd3012

K. Bobrov, A. Borisova, E. Eneyskaya, D. Ivanen, K. A. Shabalin et al., Improvement of the efficiency of transglycosylation catalyzed by ??-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima by protein engineering, Biochemistry (Moscow), vol.78, issue.10, pp.1112-1123, 2013.
DOI : 10.1134/S0006297913100052

B. Cantarel, P. Coutinho, C. Rancurel, T. Bernard, V. Lombard et al., The Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes database (CAZy): an expert resource for Glycogenomics, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.37, issue.Database, pp.233-241, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkn663

M. Cervera-tison, L. Tailford, C. Fuell, L. Bruel, G. Sulzenbacher et al., Functional Analysis of Family GH36 ??-Galactosidases from Ruminococcus gnavus E1: Insights into the Metabolism of a Plant Oligosaccharide by a Human Gut Symbiont, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.78, issue.21, pp.7720-7752, 2012.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.01350-12

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01268089

E. Champion, I. Andre, C. Moulis, J. Boutet, K. Descroix et al., Design of ??-Transglucosidases of Controlled Specificity for Programmed Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Antigenic Oligosaccharides, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.131, issue.21, pp.7379-7389, 2009.
DOI : 10.1021/ja900183h

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00414248

R. Chenna, H. Sugawara, T. Koike, R. Lopez, T. Gibson et al., Multiple sequence alignment with the Clustal series of programs, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.31, issue.13, pp.31-3497, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkg500

B. Cobucci-ponzano, A. Zorzetti, S. Strazzulli, E. Bedini, M. Corsaro et al., A Novel ?-D-galactosynthase from Thermotoga Maritima converts ?-D-galactopyranosyl azide to ?-galacto-oligosaccharides, 2010.

B. Cobucci-ponzano, G. Perugino, A. Strazzulli, and M. Moracci, Thermophilic glycosynthases for oligosaccharides synthesis. Cellulases, 2012.

D. Almeida, A. Ionata, M. Tran, V. Tellier, C. Dion et al., An expeditious and efficient synthesis of ??-d-galactopyranosyl-(1???3)-d-N-acetylglucosamine (lacto-N-biose) using a glycosynthase from Thermus thermophilus as a catalyst, Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, vol.20, issue.11, pp.1243-1246, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tetasy.2009.05.007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00414617

M. Dion, A. Nisole, P. Spangenberg, C. Andre, A. Glottin-fleury et al., Modulation of the regioselectivity of a Bacillus alpha-galactosidase by directed evolution, Glycoconjugate Journal, vol.18, issue.3, pp.215-223, 2001.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1012448522187

M. Dion, G. Osanjo, C. Andre, P. Spangenberg, C. Rabiller et al., Identification by saturation mutagenesis of a single residue involved in the ?-galactosidase AgaB regioselectivity, Glycoconjugate J, issue.18, pp.457-464, 2001.

H. Feng, J. Drone, L. Hoffmann, V. Tran, C. Tellier et al., Converting a ??-Glycosidase into a ??-Transglycosidase by Directed Evolution, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.280, issue.44, pp.37088-37097, 2005.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M502873200

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00385576

F. Fredslund, M. Hachem, R. Larsen, P. Sørensen, P. Coutinho et al., Crystal Structure of ??-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM: Insight into Tetramer Formation and Substrate Binding, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.412, issue.3, pp.466-480, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.07.057

R. Gantt, P. Peltier-pain, S. Singh, M. Zhou, and J. Thorson, Broadening the scope of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed sugar nucleotide synthesis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.110, issue.19, pp.7648-7653, 2013.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1220220110

H. Ghazarian, B. Idoni, and S. Oppenheimer, A glycobiology review: Carbohydrates, lectins and implications in cancer therapeutics, Acta Histochemica, vol.113, issue.3, pp.236-247, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.acthis.2010.02.004

B. Svensson, Raffinose family oligosaccharide utilisation by probiotic bacteria: insight into substrate recognition, molecular architecture and diversity of GH36 ?galactosidases, Biocatal Biotransform, vol.30, pp.316-325, 2012.

G. Hart and R. Copeland, Glycomics Hits the Big Time, Cell, vol.143, issue.5, pp.672-676, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2010.11.008

E. Hehre, C. Brewer, and D. Genghof, Scope and mechanism of carbohydrase action Hydrolytic and nonhydrolytic actions of beta-amylase on alpha-and beta-maltosyl fluoride, J. Biol. Chem, vol.254, pp.5942-5950, 1979.

Y. Honda, S. Fushinobu, M. Hidaka, T. Wakagi, H. Shoun et al., Alternative strategy for converting an inverting glycoside hydrolase into a glycosynthase, Glycobiology, vol.18, issue.4, pp.325-355, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/glycob/cwn011

Y. Honda and M. Kitaoka, The First Glycosynthase Derived from an Inverting Glycoside Hydrolase, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.281, issue.3, pp.1426-1431, 2006.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M511202200

R. Irague, S. Massou, C. Moulis, O. Saurel, A. Milon et al., NMR-Based Structural Glycomics for High-Throughput Screening of Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme Specificity, Analytical Chemistry, vol.83, issue.4, pp.1202-1206, 2011.
DOI : 10.1021/ac1032148

R. Kelly, H. Leemhuis, H. Rozeboom, N. Van-oosterwijk, B. Dijkstra et al., Elimination of competing hydrolysis and coupling side reactions of a cyclodextrin glucanotransferase by directed evolution, Biochemical Journal, vol.413, issue.3, pp.517-542, 2008.
DOI : 10.1042/BJ20080353

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00478977

F. Koné, L. Béchec, M. Sine, J. Dion, M. Tellier et al., Digital screening methodology for the directed evolution of transglycosidases, Protein Engineering Design and Selection, vol.22, issue.1, pp.37-44, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/protein/gzn065

L. Lairson, B. Henrissat, G. Davies, and S. Withers, Glycosyltransferases: Structures, Functions, and Mechanisms, Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol.77, issue.1, pp.521-555, 2008.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.biochem.76.061005.092322

H. Leemhuis, B. Dijkstra, and L. Dijkhuizen, Mutations converting cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from a transglycosylase into a starch hydrolase, FEBS Letters, vol.445, issue.2-3, pp.189-92, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0014-5793(02)02362-1

R. Lichtenstein and R. Ga, Glycobiology of cell death: when glycans and lectins govern cell fate, Cell Death and Differentiation, vol.166, issue.8, 2013.
DOI : 10.1189/jlb.0310144

V. Lombard, H. Ramulu, E. Drula, P. Coutinho, and H. B. , The carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy) in 2013, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.42, issue.D1, pp.490-495, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkt1178

B. Macher and U. Galili, The Gal??1,3Gal??1,4GlcNAc-R (??-Gal) epitope: A carbohydrate of unique evolution and clinical relevance, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, vol.1780, issue.2, pp.75-88, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbagen.2007.11.003

L. Mackenzie, Q. Wang, R. Warren, and S. Withers, Glycosynthases:?? Mutant Glycosidases for Oligosaccharide Synthesis, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.120, issue.22, pp.5583-5584, 1998.
DOI : 10.1021/ja980833d

T. Peterbauer, U. Karner, J. Mucha, L. Mach, D. Jones et al., Enzymatic control of the accumulation of verbascose in pea seeds, Plant, Cell and Environment, vol.29, issue.8, pp.1385-1391, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1999.00618.x

T. Peterbauer, L. Mach, J. Mucha, and A. Richter, Functional expression of a cDNA encoding pea ( Pisum sativum L.) raffinose synthase, partial purification of the enzyme from maturing seeds, and steady-state kinetic analysis of raffinose synthesis, Planta, vol.215, issue.5, pp.839-846, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00425-002-0804-7

T. Peterbauer, J. Mucha, L. Mach, and A. Richter, Chain Elongation of Raffinose in Pea Seeds: ISOLATION, CHARCTERIZATION, AND MOLECULAR CLONING OF A MULTIFUNCTIONAL ENZYME CATALYZING THE SYNTHESIS OF STACHYOSE AND VERBASCOSE, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.277, issue.1, pp.194-200, 2002.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M109734200

F. Plou, A. Segura, and B. , Application of Glycosidases and Transglycosidases in the Synthesis of Oligosaccharides, Industrial Enzyme, pp.141-157, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/1-4020-5377-0_9

P. Spangenberg, C. Andre, M. Dion, C. Rabiller, and R. Mattes, Comparative study of new ??-galactosidases in transglycosylation reactions, Carbohydrate Research, vol.329, issue.1, pp.65-73, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-6215(00)00170-1

D. Teze, M. Dion, F. Daligault, V. Tran, C. André-miral et al., Alkoxyamino glycoside acceptors for the regioselective synthesis of oligosaccharides using glycosynthases and transglycosidases, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol.23, issue.2, pp.448-451
DOI : 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.11.065

D. Teze, J. Hendrickx, M. Czjzek, D. Ropartz, Y. Sanejouand et al., Semi-rational approach for converting a GH1 ??-glycosidase into a ??-transglycosidase, Protein Engineering Design and Selection, vol.27, issue.1, pp.13-19, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/protein/gzt057

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01020940

D. Teze, J. Hendrickx, M. Dion, C. Tellier, V. Woods et al., Conserved Water Molecules in Family 1 Glycosidases: A DXMS and Molecular Dynamics Study, Biochemistry, vol.52, issue.34, pp.5900-5910, 2013.
DOI : 10.1021/bi400260b

J. Wada, Y. Honda, M. Nagae, R. Kato, S. Wakatsuki et al., -alpha-L-Fucosynthase: a glycosynthase derived from an inverting alpha-glycosidase with an unusual reaction mechanism, FEBS Letters, vol.1, issue.227, pp.582-3739, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00157653

C. Wang, J. Lee, S. Luo, S. Kulkarni, Y. Huang et al., Regioselective one-pot protection of carbohydrates, Nature, vol.126, issue.7138, pp.896-899, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nature05730

Q. Wang, R. Graham, D. Trimbur, R. Warren, and S. Withers, Changing Enzymic Reaction Mechanisms by Mutagenesis: Conversion of a Retaining Glucosidase to an Inverting Enzyme, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.116, issue.25, pp.11594-11595, 1994.
DOI : 10.1021/ja00104a060

H. Wang, R. Ma, P. Shi, X. Xue, H. Luo et al., A New ??-Galactosidase from Thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus sp. A4 with Wide Acceptor Specificity for Transglycosylation, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol.110, issue.1, pp.328-366, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s12010-014-1050-8

C. Zhang, B. Griffith, Q. Fu, C. Albermann, X. Fu et al., Exploiting the Reversibility of Natural Product Glycosyltransferase-Catalyzed Reactions, Science, vol.313, issue.5791, pp.1291-1294, 2006.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1130028