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New colistin population pharmacokinetic data in critically ill patients suggesting an alternative loading dose rationale

Abstract : Colistin is an old antibiotic that has recently gained a considerable renewal of interest as the last-line defense therapy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. It is administered as colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), an inactive prodrug, and it was shown that due to slow CMS conversion, colistin plasma concentrations increase very slowly after treatment initiation, which constitutes the rationale for a loading dose in critically ill patients. However, faster CMS conversion was observed in healthy volunteers but using a different CMS brand, which may also have a major impact on colistin pharmacokinetics. Seventy-three critically ill patients not undergoing dialysis received multiple doses of CMS. The CMS concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and a pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using a population approach. We confirmed that CMS renal clearance and colistin concentrations at steady state are mostly governed by creatinine clearance, but we predict a typical maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of colistin close to 2 mg/liter, occurring 3 h after an initial dose of 2 million international units (MIU) of CMS. Accordingly, the estimated colistin half-life (t1/2) was relatively short (3.1 h), with rapid attainment of steady state. Our results are only partially consistent with other recently published results. We confirm that the CMS maintenance dose should be adjusted according to renal function in critically ill patients. However, much higher than expected colistin concentrations were observed after the initial CMS dose, with rapid steady-state achievement. These discrepancies challenge the pharmacokinetic rationale for a loading dose, which may still be appropriate for rapid bacterial eradication and an improved clinical cure rate.
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https://hal-univ-rennes1.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01147034
Contributor : Laurent Jonchère <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, April 29, 2015 - 3:01:49 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, June 18, 2020 - 9:29:20 AM

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N. Grégoire, O. Mimoz, B. Mégarbane, E. Comets, D. Chatelier, et al.. New colistin population pharmacokinetic data in critically ill patients suggesting an alternative loading dose rationale. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, American Society for Microbiology, 2014, 58 (12), pp.7324--7330. ⟨10.1128/AAC.03508-14⟩. ⟨hal-01147034⟩

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