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Effects of Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and training on immune cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

Abstract : Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, is a complex process that results from the loss of tolerance to insulin and other beta-cell-specific antigens. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of death from infectious disease. Hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and inflammation have been identified as the main factor contributing to the development of diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. However, experimental evidence indicates individual susceptibility to develop complications of diabetes. Various genetic and environmental factors have been studied so far, but precise causation has yet to be established. Numerous studies in rodents and human subjects have been performed in order to elucidate the role of B and T cells, which determine the risk of development and progression of diabetes. Moreover, the therapy management of diabetes includes nutritional recommendations and exercise training. The effects of exercise training on glycemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and immune response are well known and favorable to limit the development of diabetes and its complications. More interestingly, ?-galacto-oligosaccharides (?-GOS) are prebiotics that selectively alter the composition of gut microbiota and exhibit strong antioxidant, anti- inflammatory and insulin-sensitive effects in vitro (Efstathiou and Fathi 2010) and in vivo (Boucher J et al. 2003). Thus, ? -GOS is a potential functional food for the treatment of diabetes. But, less is known about the effect of training and ? –GOS on immune response in diabetes. In this context, the aim of this work was to study the immune response in a streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes with two therapeutic means: training and ?-galacto-oligosaccharides (?-GOS) alone or combined. Methods: Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control placebo, streptozotocin-diabetic rat (STZ) groups supplemented or not with ?-GOS (20 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks and/or following endurance training. The training program was individualized and consisted in a 1h/day, 5days/week running during 8 weeks on a motor-driven treadmill. At the end of the protocol, blood was obtained by venous puncture into heparin-containing tubes for further analyses (glucose, insulin, fructosamine and immune responses) Results: Relative to the control group, STZ rats exhibited hyperglycemia, insulin deficiency and a trend to higher plasma fructosamine levels, a marker of glycated proteins. They also exhibited a decrease in T and B cells and an increase in natural killers (NK). ?-GOS treatment reduced plasma fructosamine levels and increased B cells compared to STZ rats. Training induced a decrease in plasma glucose, T cells and an increase in B cells in STZ rats. The combined effect of ?-GOS and training didn’t potentiate the immune response on B and T cells but inhibited the effects of training on NK. Discussion: Our results suggest that training and ?-GOS alter positively plasma glucose and/or fructosamine and the immune response. But the effects of combined treatments only concern limited parameters. ? -GOS effects could be partly attributable to its immunomodulating activity. Keywords: ?-GOS, training, immune cells, diabetes. References Efstathiou, T. and D. Fathi. Sojasun Technologies. 2010 Boucher J et al. J Physiol Biochem. 59(3):169-73, 2003
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 3, 2015 - 11:18:52 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:03:41 AM

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Sophie Vincent, Luz Lefeuvre-Orfila, Carole Groussard, Frédéric Derbré, Dany Saligaut, et al.. Effects of Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and training on immune cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. 18th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Sciences, Barcelone, Spain, 26-29 juin., 2013, Barcelone, Spain. ⟨hal-01159378⟩

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