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Méthylation/déméthylation de l’ADN et expression du génome

Abstract : Methylation/demethylation phenomenons in DNA are master pieces of the maintenance and regulation of the genome. These chemical modifications which do not alter the natural genomic sequence, are mediated by many players. Cytosines within CpG dinucleotides are generally the target of these changes. DNA methylation (by adding a CH3 group in position 5 of the pyrimidine ring) involves DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) that do not have all the same role. This methylation is not an aleatory mechanism and will involve several parameters. Intrinsic properties of DNMTs, interaction partners of these (RNAs, transcription factor ...) and the direct environment of the DNA (chromatin state, ...) will therefore influence the methylation system. But in parallel to this, there are also demethylation processes. They are usually either passive or active. They will involve new actors such as Ten-Eleven-Translocation proteins (TETs), resulting in new chemical modification of cytosine (e.g., hydroxylation of the methyl group, formylation, carboxylation ...). Many different proteins interact together and affect the demethylation mechanism of DNA. Combined together these mechanisms will have an impact on both non-coding regions of DNA and the coding regions. The consequence is a fine regulation of genomic stability but also of the expression or not of genes. In this review, we will reference and discuss the various aspects of methylation/demethylation of DNA
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 18, 2015 - 1:39:53 PM
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Pierre-François Cartron, Romain Pacaud, Gilles Salbert. Méthylation/déméthylation de l’ADN et expression du génome. Revue Francophone des Laboratoires, Elsevier, 2015, Épigénétique et biologie, 2015 (473), pp.37--48. ⟨10.1016/S1773-035X(15)30158-1⟩. ⟨hal-01165107⟩



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