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Presence of Leishmania RNA Virus 1 in Leishmania guyanensis Increases the Risk of First-Line Treatment Failure and Symptomatic Relapse

Abstract : Treatment failure and symptomatic relapse are major concerns in American tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Such complications are seen frequently in Leishmania guyanensis infections, in which patients respond variously to first-line antileishmanials and are more prone to develop chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis. The factors underlying this pathology, however, are unknown. Recently, we reported that a double-stranded RNA virus, Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1), nested within L. guyanensis parasites is able to exacerbate experimental murine leishmaniasis by inducing a hyperinflammatory response. This report investigates the prevalence of LRV1 in human L. guyanensis infection and its effect on treatment efficacy, as well as its correlation to symptomatic relapses after the completion of first-line treatment. In our cohort of 75 patients with a diagnosis of primary localized American TL, the prevalence of LRV1-positive L. guyanensis infection was elevated to 58%. All patients infected with LRV1-negative L. guyanensis were cured after 1 dose (22 of 31 [71%]) or 2 doses (31 of 31 [100%]) of pentamidine. In contrast, 12 of 44 LRV1-positive patients (27%) presented with persistent infection and symptomatic relapse that required extended therapy and the use of second-line drugs. Finally, LRV1 presence was associated with a significant increase in levels of intra-lesional inflammatory markers. In conclusion, LRV1 status in L. guyanensis infection is significantly predictive (P = .0009) of first-line treatment failure and symptomatic relapse and has the potential to guide therapeutic choices in American TL.
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https://hal-univ-rennes1.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01175528
Contributor : Laurent Jonchère <>
Submitted on : Friday, July 10, 2015 - 3:53:51 PM
Last modification on : Friday, May 15, 2020 - 12:22:10 PM

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Eliane Bourreau, Marine Ginouves, Ghislaine Prévot, Mary-Anne Hartley, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, et al.. Presence of Leishmania RNA Virus 1 in Leishmania guyanensis Increases the Risk of First-Line Treatment Failure and Symptomatic Relapse. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2016, 213 (1), pp.105-111. ⟨10.1093/infdis/jiv355⟩. ⟨hal-01175528⟩

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