Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Journal articles

Association between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality in France: A 25-year follow-up study

Abstract : Introduction - Long-term exposure to air pollution (AP) has been shown to have an impact on mortality in numerous countries, but since 2005 no data exists for France. Objectives - We analyzed the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality at the individual level in a large French cohort followed from 1989 to 2013. Methods - The study sample consisted of 20,327 adults working at the French national electricity and gas company EDF-GDF. Annual exposure to PM10, PM10–2.5, PM2.5, NO2, O3, SO2, and benzene was assessed for the place of residence of participants using a chemistry-transport model and taking residential history into account. Hazard ratios were estimated using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model, adjusted for selected individual and contextual risk factors. Hazard ratios were computed for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in air pollutant concentrations. Results - The cohort recorded 1967 non-accidental deaths. Long-term exposures to b aseline PM2.5, PM10-25, NO2 and benzene were associated with an increase in non-accidental mortality (Hazard Ratio, HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.20 per 5.9 μg/m3, PM10-25; HR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15 per 2.2 μg/m3, NO2: HR=1.14; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.31 per 19.3 μg/m3 and benzene: HR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22 per 1.7 μg/m3).The strongest association was found for PM10: HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.25 per 7.8 μg/m3. PM10, PM10-25 and SO2 were associated with non-accidental mortality when using time varying exposure. No significant associations were observed between air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Conclusion - Long-term exposure to fine particles, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and benzene is associated with an increased risk of non-accidental mortality in France. Our results strengthen existing evidence that outdoor air pollution is a significant environmental risk factor for mortality. Due to the limited sample size and the nature of our study (occupational), further investigations are needed in France with a larger representative population sample.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadatas

Cited literature [25 references]  Display  Hide  Download
Contributor : Laurent Jonchère <>
Submitted on : Monday, November 2, 2015 - 3:34:03 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 20, 2020 - 11:01:41 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, February 3, 2016 - 10:57:49 AM


Association between long-term ...
Files produced by the author(s)



Malek Bentayeb, Vérène Wagner, Morgane Stempfelet, Marie Zins, Marcel Goldberg, et al.. Association between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality in France: A 25-year follow-up study. Environment International, Elsevier, 2015, 85, pp.5--14. ⟨10.1016/j.envint.2015.08.006⟩. ⟨hal-01187145⟩



Record views


Files downloads