R. Mertens, The OLED Handbook, 2012, A guide to OLED Technology, Industry & Market, 2012.

M. Romain, D. Tondelier, J. Vanel, B. Geffroy, O. Jeannin et al., Dependence of the Properties of Dihydroindenofluorene Derivatives on Positional Isomerism: Influence of the Ring Bridging, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.17, issue.52, pp.14147-14151, 2013.
DOI : 10.1002/anie.201306668

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01064867

N. Cocherel, C. Poriel, L. Vignau, J. Bergamini, and J. Rault-berthelot, DiSpiroXanthene-IndenoFluorene: A New Blue Emitter for Nondoped Organic Light Emitting Diode Applications, Organic Letters, vol.12, issue.3, pp.452-455, 2010.
DOI : 10.1021/ol9025952

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00468299

C. Poriel, N. Cocherel, J. Rault-berthelot, L. Vignau, and O. Jeannin, Incorporation of Spiroxanthene Units in Blue-Emitting Oligophenylene Frameworks: A New Molecular Design for OLED Applications, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.32, issue.45, pp.12631-12645, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/chem.201100790

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00658322

D. Thirion, M. Romain, J. Rault-berthelot, and C. Poriel, Intramolecular excimer emission as a blue light source in fluorescent organic light emitting diodes: a promising molecular design, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol.47, issue.15, pp.7149-7157, 2012.
DOI : 10.1039/c2jm16774c

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00687064

X. Yang, X. Xu, and G. Zhou, Recent advances of the emitters for high performance deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes, J. Mater. Chem. C, vol.26, issue.5, pp.913-944, 2015.
DOI : 10.1039/C4TC02474E

H. Liang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, Z. Ge et al., Saturated deep-blue emitter based on a spiro[benzoanthracene???fluorene]-linked phenanthrene derivative for non-doped organic light-emitting diodes, New J. Chem., vol.117, issue.10, pp.4696-4701, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/adfm.201400597

C. Liu, Q. Fu, Y. Zou, C. Yang, D. Ma et al., Low Turn-on Voltage, High-Power-Efficiency, Solution-Processed Deep-Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Starburst Oligofluorenes with Diphenylamine End-Capper to Enhance the HOMO Level, Chemistry of Materials, vol.26, issue.10, pp.3074-3083, 2014.
DOI : 10.1021/cm4039522

L. Yao, S. Sun, S. Xue, S. Zhang, X. Wu et al., Aromatic S-Heterocycle and Fluorene Derivatives as Solution-Processed Blue Fluorescent Emitters: Structure???Property Relationships for Different Sulfur Oxidation States, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.117, issue.27, pp.14189-14196, 2013.
DOI : 10.1021/jp403463k

J. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T. Li, and S. Sahoo, Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes, J. Mater. Chem. C, vol.26, issue.13, pp.2974-3002, 1999.
DOI : 10.1039/C4TC02547D

E. Mondal, W. Hung, Y. Chen, M. Cheng, and K. Wong, Molecular Topology Tuning of Bipolar Host Materials Composed of Fluorene-Bridged Benzimidazole and Carbazole for Highly Efficient Electrophosphorescence, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.22, issue.32, pp.10563-10572, 2013.
DOI : 10.1002/chem.201300738

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie et al., Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.23, issue.40, pp.10104-10108, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/anie.201202702

C. W. Lee and Y. J. Lee, Structure???Property Relationship of Pyridoindole-Type Host Materials for High-Efficiency Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes, Chemistry of Materials, vol.26, issue.4, pp.1616-1621, 2014.
DOI : 10.1021/cm403750p

M. Romain, D. Tondelier, B. Geffroy, O. Jeannin, E. Jacques et al., ]fluorene: Towards New Families of Organic Semiconductors, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.44, issue.26, pp.9426-9439, 2015.
DOI : 10.1002/chem.201500336

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01158458

C. Poriel, R. Métivier, J. Rault-berthelot, D. Thirion, F. Barrière et al., A robust pure hydrocarbon derivative based on the (2,1-b)-indenofluorenyl core with high triplet energy level, Chemical Communications, vol.19, issue.42, pp.11703-11705, 2011.
DOI : 10.1039/c1cc14534g

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00641397

M. Romain, S. Thiery, A. Shirinskaya, C. Declairieux, D. Tondelier et al., -Dihydroindenofluorene Derivatives as Host Materials for Phosphorescent OLEDs, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.122, issue.4, pp.1176-1180, 1994.
DOI : 10.1002/anie.201409479

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00908482

S. Gong, Y. Chang, K. Wu, and R. White, High-Power-Efficiency Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by the Synergistic Combination of Phosphine-Oxide-Based Host and Electron-Transporting Materials, Chemistry of Materials, vol.26, issue.3, pp.1463-1470, 2014.
DOI : 10.1021/cm4037555

C. Fan, L. Zhu, T. Liu, B. Jiang, D. Ma et al., Using an Organic Molecule with Low Triplet Energy as a Host in a Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent Device, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.25, issue.8, pp.2147-2151, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/anie.201308046

M. Leung, Y. Hsieh, T. Kuo, P. Chou, J. Lee et al., Novel Ambipolar Orthogonal Donor???Acceptor Host for Blue Organic Light Emitting Diodes, Organic Letters, vol.15, issue.18, pp.4694-4697, 2013.
DOI : 10.1021/ol402001v

S. Thiery, D. Tondelier, C. Declairieux, B. Geffroy, O. Jeannin et al., 4-Pyridyl-9,9???-spirobifluorenes as Host Materials for Green and Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.119, issue.11, pp.5790-5805, 2015.
DOI : 10.1021/jp511385f

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01117418

C. Fan, Y. Chen, Z. Liu, Z. Jiang, C. Zhong et al., Tetraphenylsilane derivatives spiro-annulated by triphenylamine/carbazole with enhanced HOMO energy levels and glass transition temperatures without lowering triplet energy: host materials for efficient blue phosphorescent OLEDs, J. Mater. Chem. C, vol.16, issue.3, pp.463-469, 2013.
DOI : 10.1039/C2TC00082B

F. May, M. Al-helwi, B. Baumeier, W. Kowalsky, E. Fuchs et al., Design Rules for Charge-Transport Efficient Host Materials for Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.134, issue.33, pp.13818-13822, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/ja305310r

J. Bin, N. Cho, and J. Hong, New Host Material for High-Performance Blue Phosphorescent Organic Electroluminescent Devices, Advanced Materials, vol.11, issue.21, pp.2911-2915, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/adma.201200972

J. Ding, Q. Wang, L. Zhao, D. Ma, L. Wang et al., Design of star-shaped molecular architectures based on carbazole and phosphine oxide moieties: towards amorphous bipolar hosts with high triplet energy for efficient blue electrophosphorescent devices, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol.41, issue.37, pp.8126-8133, 2010.
DOI : 10.1039/c0jm00846j

H. Ohkuma, T. Nakagawa, K. Shizu, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence from a Spiro-diazafluorene Derivative, Chemistry Letters, vol.43, issue.7, pp.1017-1019, 2014.
DOI : 10.1246/cl.140360

K. Nasu, T. Nakagawa, H. Nomura, C. Lin, C. Cheng et al., A highly luminescent spiro-anthracenone-based organic light-emitting diode exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence, Chemical Communications, vol.22, issue.88, pp.10385-10387, 2013.
DOI : 10.1039/c3cc44179b

L. Ding, S. Dong, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, L. Liao et al., Orthogonal Molecular Structure for Better Host Material in Blue Phosphorescence and Larger OLED White Lighting Panel, Advanced Functional Materials, vol.118, issue.4, pp.645-650, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/adfm.201403402

G. Méhes, H. Nomura, Q. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, and C. Adachi, Enhanced Electroluminescence Efficiency in a Spiro-Acridine Derivative through Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.118, issue.45, pp.11311-11315, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/anie.201206289

T. Liu, H. Sun, C. Fan, D. Ma, C. Zhong et al., High efficiency blue PhOLEDs using spiro-annulated triphenylamine/fluorene hybrids as host materials with high triplet energy, high HOMO level and high Tg, Organic Electronics, vol.15, issue.12, pp.3568-3576, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.orgel.2014.10.009

H. Chen, Z. Jiang, C. Gao, M. Xu, S. Dong et al., Silicon-Based Material with Spiro-Annulated Fluorene/Triphenylamine as Host and Exciton-Blocking Layer for Blue Electrophosphorescent Devices, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.19, issue.35, pp.11791-11797, 2013.
DOI : 10.1002/chem.201301106

Q. Zhang, J. Li, K. Shizu, S. Huang, S. Hirata et al., Design of Efficient Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Materials for Pure Blue Organic Light Emitting Diodes, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.134, issue.36, pp.14706-14709, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/ja306538w

H. Li, A. S. Batsanov, K. C. Moss, H. L. Vaughan, F. B. Dias et al., The interplay of conformation and photophysical properties in deep-blue fluorescent oligomers, Chemical Communications, vol.103, issue.26, pp.4812-4814, 2010.
DOI : 10.1039/c0cc00211a

Y. Li, Z. Wang, X. Li, G. Xie, D. Chen et al., Highly Efficient Spiro[fluorene-9,9???-thioxanthene] Core Derived Blue Emitters and Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes, Chemistry of Materials, vol.27, issue.3, pp.1100-1109, 2015.
DOI : 10.1021/cm504441v

S. Kim, J. Leroy, C. Zuniga, Y. Zhang, L. Zhu et al., High-efficiency blue-green electrophosphorescent light-emitting devices using a bis-sulfone as host in the emitting layer, Organic Electronics, vol.12, issue.8, pp.1314-1318, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.orgel.2011.04.015

H. Sasabe, Y. Seino, M. Kimura, and J. Kido, -Terphenyl-Modifed Sulfone Derivative as a Host Material for High-Efficiency Blue and Green Phosphorescent OLEDs, Chemistry of Materials, vol.24, issue.8, pp.1404-1406, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/cm3006748

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00638872

F. Hsu, C. Chien, Y. Hsieh, C. Wu, C. Shu et al., Highly efficient red electrophosphorescent device incorporating a bipolar triphenylamine/bisphenylsulfonyl-substituted fluorene hybrid as the host, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol.91, issue.42, pp.8002-8008, 2009.
DOI : 10.1039/b910292b

H. Chen, T. Wang, W. Hung, H. Chiu, C. Yun et al., Spiro-configured bipolar hosts incorporating 4,5-diazafluroene as the electron transport moiety for highly efficient red and green phosphorescent OLEDs, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol.10, issue.19, pp.9658-9664, 2012.
DOI : 10.1039/c2jm30749a

C. Chi, C. Chiang, S. Liu, H. Yueh, C. Chen et al., Achieving high-efficiency non-doped blue organic light-emitting diodes: charge-balance control of bipolar blue fluorescent materials with reduced hole-mobility, Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol.15, issue.31, pp.5561-5571, 2009.
DOI : 10.1039/b902910a

W. Li, B. Liu, Y. Qian, L. Xie, J. Wang et al., Synthesis and characterization of diazafluorene-based oligofluorenes and polyfluorene, Polymer Chemistry, vol.43, issue.6, pp.1796-1802, 2013.
DOI : 10.1039/c2py20971c

M. Hong, K. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, Synthesis and structural characterization of copper(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) complexes with 4,5-diazaspirobifluorene and bis-9-biphenyl-4,5-diazafluorenyl peroxide, Polyhedron, vol.28, issue.3, pp.445-452, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.poly.2008.11.023

X. Li, H. Chi, G. Lu, and G. Xiao, High-performance OLEDs based on 4,5-diaza-9,9???-spirobifluorene ligated rhenium(I) complex with enhanced steric hindrance, Organic Electronics, vol.13, issue.12, pp.3138-3144, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.orgel.2012.09.020

H. Chen, W. Hung, S. Chen, T. Wang, S. Lin et al., Cationic Iridium Complexes with Intramolecular ??????? Interaction and Enhanced Steric Hindrance for Solid-State Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells, Inorganic Chemistry, vol.51, issue.22, pp.12114-12121, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/ic300673k

C. Zheng, J. Ye, M. Lo, and M. Fing, New Ambipolar Hosts Based on Carbazole and 4,5-Diazafluorene Units for Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with Low Efficiency Roll-Off, Chemistry of Materials, vol.24, issue.4, pp.643-650, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/cm2036647

G. R. Fulmer, A. J. Miller, N. H. Sherden, H. E. Gottlieb, A. Nudelman et al., NMR Chemical Shifts of Trace Impurities: Common Laboratory Solvents, Organics, and Gases in Deuterated Solvents Relevant to the Organometallic Chemist, Organometallics, vol.29, issue.9, pp.2176-2179, 2010.
DOI : 10.1021/om100106e

T. P. Saragi, T. Spehr, A. Siebert, T. Fuhrmann-lieker, and J. Salbeck, Spiro Compounds for Organic Optoelectronics, Chemical Reviews, vol.107, issue.4, pp.1011-1065, 2007.
DOI : 10.1021/cr0501341

C. Poriel, J. Liang, J. Rault-berthelot, F. Barrière, N. Cocherel et al., Dispirofluorene???Indenofluorene Derivatives as New Building Blocks for Blue Organic Electroluminescent Devices and Electroactive Polymers, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.4, issue.123, pp.10055-10069, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/chem.200701036

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00283671

E. Baranoff and B. F. Curchod, FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence, Dalton Trans., vol.11, issue.18, pp.8318-8329, 2015.
DOI : 10.1039/C4DT02991G

S. Thiery, C. Declairieux, D. Tondelier, G. Seo, B. Geffroy et al., 2-Substituted vs 4-substituted-9,9???-spirobifluorene host materials for green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs: a structure???property relationship study, Tetrahedron, vol.70, issue.36, pp.6337-6351, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tet.2014.05.081

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01072178