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A new subtype of high-grade mandibular osteosarcoma with RASAL1/MDM2 amplification

Abstract : In contrast to long bone osteosarcoma, mandibular osteosarcoma are highly heterogeneous and morphologically overlap with benign tumors, obscuring diagnosis and treatment selection. Molecular characterization is difficult due to the paucity of available specimens of this rare disease. We aimed to characterize the spectrum of mandibular osteosarcoma using immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (quantitative polymerase chain reaction, sequencing) and compare them with benign fibro-osseous lesions. Forty-nine paraffin-embedded mandible osteosarcoma tissue samples were collected retrospectively and compared with 10 fibrous dysplasia and 15 ossifying fibroma cases. These were analyzed for molecular markers thought to differ between the different diseases and subtypes: MDM2 (murine double-minute type-2) overexpression; GNAS (guanine nucleotide-binding protein/alpha subunit) mutations; and amplification of MDM2 and/or RASAL1 (RAS protein activator like-1). Five fibroblastic high-grade osteosarcoma subtypes showed MDM2 amplification, including two with a microscopic appearance of high-grade osteosarcoma with part low-grade osteosarcoma (differentiated/dedifferentiated osteosarcoma) and MDM2 overexpression. The other three contained a co-amplification of MDM2 and RASAL1, a signature also described for juvenile ossifying fibroma, with no overexpression of MDM2. These were of the giant cell-rich high-grade osteosarcoma, with areas mimicking juvenile ossifying fibroma (ossifying-fibroma-like osteosarcoma). Our results show that some diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma are differentiated/dedifferentiated osteosarcomas and harbor an overexpression and amplification of MDM2. In addition, juvenile ossifying fibromas can potentially evolve into giant cell-rich high-grade osteosarcomas and are characterized by a RASAL1 amplification (osteosarcoma with juvenile ossifying fibroma-like genotype). Thus, the presence of a RASAL1 amplification in ossifying fibroma may indicate a requirement for closer follow-up and more aggressive management
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Maxime Guérin, Juliette Thariat, Mounia Ouali, Corinne Bouvier, Anne-Valérie Decouvelaere, et al.. A new subtype of high-grade mandibular osteosarcoma with RASAL1/MDM2 amplification. Human Pathology, WB Saunders, 2015, In press. ⟨10.1016/j.humpath.2015.11.012⟩. ⟨hal-01240474⟩

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