M. J. Anderson, PERMANOVA Permutational multivariate analysis of variance, Austral Ecology, pp.1-24, 2005.

G. Bell and A. Gonzalez, Adaptation and Evolutionary Rescue in Metapopulations Experiencing Environmental Deterioration, Science, vol.332, issue.6035, pp.1327-1330, 2011.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1203105

. Bierbaum, &. Mueller, and . Ayala, Density-Dependent Evolution of Life-History Traits in Drosophila Melanogaster, Evolution, vol.43, issue.2, pp.382-392, 1989.
DOI : 10.2307/2409214

D. Block, M. Stoks, and R. , Compensatory growth and oxidative stress in a damselfly, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.2, issue.3, pp.781-786, 2008.
DOI : 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0496

J. Boeye, J. M. Travis, R. Stoks, and D. Bonte, More rapid climate change promotes evolutionary rescue through selection for increased dispersal distance, Evolutionary Applications, vol.414, issue.2, pp.353-364, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/eva.12004

J. Bo?i? and J. Woodring, Effect of activity on the haemolymph sugar titres in honey bees, Journal of Apicultural Research, vol.29, issue.3, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1952.tb06127.x

A. Bryon, N. Wybouw, W. Dermauw, L. Tirry, and T. Van-leeuwen, Genome wide gene-expression analysis of facultative reproductive diapause in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, BMC Genomics, vol.14, issue.1, p.815, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/imb.12025

T. C. Cameron, D. O-'sullivan, A. Reynolds, S. B. Piertney, and T. G. Benton, Eco-evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on life-history, Ecology Letters, vol.22, issue.6, pp.754-763, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/ele.12107

T. C. Cameron, S. Plaistow, M. Mugabo, S. B. Piertney, and T. G. Benton, Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics in a Model System, 2014.

S. M. Carlson, C. J. Cunningham, and P. A. Westley, Evolutionary rescue in a changing world, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.29, issue.9, pp.521-530, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2014.06.005

A. B. Clark, Sex Ratio and Local Resource Competition in a Prosimian Primate, Science, vol.201, issue.4351, pp.163-168, 1978.
DOI : 10.1126/science.201.4351.163

A. Conesa, S. Götz, J. M. García-gómez, J. Terol, M. Talón et al., Blast2GO: a universal tool for annotation, visualization and analysis in functional genomics research, Bioinformatics, vol.21, issue.18, pp.3674-3676, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti610

W. Dermauw, N. Wybouw, S. Rombauts, B. Menten, J. Vontas et al., A link between host plant adaptation and pesticide resistance in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, pp.113-135, 2013.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1213214110

D. Roissart, A. Wang, S. Bonte, and D. , Spatial and spatiotemporal variation in metapopulation structure affects population dynamics in a passively dispersing arthropod, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.17, issue.6, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/1365-2656.12400

C. Dytham and J. Travis, Evolving dispersal and age at death. Oikos, pp.530-538, 2006.

T. E. Farkas, T. Mononen, A. A. Comeault, I. Hanski, and P. Nosil, Evolution of Camouflage Drives Rapid Ecological Change in an Insect Community, Current Biology, vol.23, issue.19, pp.1835-1843, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2013.07.067

E. A. Fronhofer, A. Kubisch, F. M. Hilker, T. Hovestadt, and H. J. Poethke, Why are metapopulations so rare? Ecology, pp.1967-1978, 2012.

A. A. George, B. O. De-lumen, J. R. Whitaker, and V. C. Sgarbieri, Methionine-containing proteins in twoPhaseolus vulgaris cultivars with different methionine bioavailabilities, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol.38, issue.3, pp.225-232, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01886223

R. Gomulkiewicz and R. D. Holt, When does Evolution by Natural Selection Prevent Extinction? Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, pp.201-207, 1995.

Y. De-peer, The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations, Nature, vol.479, pp.487-92, 2011.

I. Hanski, Metapopulation Dynamics, Nature, vol.396, pp.41-49, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-012323445-2/50007-9

I. Hanski and T. Mononen, Eco-evolutionary dynamics of dispersal in spatially heterogeneous environments, Ecology Letters, vol.364, issue.113, pp.1025-1059, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01671.x

S. Harrison and A. D. Taylor, Empirical evidence for metapopulation dynamics Metapopulation biology: ecology, genetics, and evolution pp, pp.27-42, 1997.

C. N. Johnson, Dispersal and the sex ratio at birth in primates, Nature, vol.332, issue.6166, pp.726-734, 1988.
DOI : 10.1038/332726a0

T. J. Kawecki, Age and Size at Maturity in a Patchy Environment: Fitness Maximization versus Evolutionary Stability, Oikos, vol.66, issue.2, pp.309-317, 1993.
DOI : 10.2307/3544819

T. J. Kawecki, R. E. Lenski, D. Ebert, B. Hollis, I. Olivieri et al., Experimental evolution, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.27, issue.10, pp.547-560, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2012.06.001

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00162893

O. E. Krips, A. Witul, P. E. Willems, and M. Dicke, Intrinsic rate of population increase of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae on the ornamental crop gerbera: intraspecific variation in host plant and herbivore, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol.89, issue.2, pp.159-168, 1998.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1570-7458.1998.00395.x

M. Laparie, V. Larvor, Y. Frenot, and D. Renault, Starvation resistance and effects of diet on energy reserves in a predatory ground beetle (Merizodus soledadinus; Carabidae) invading the Kerguelen Islands. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -A Molecular and Integrative Physiology, pp.122-129, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00677499

T. Van-leeuwen, B. Vanholme, S. Van-pottelberge, P. Van-nieuwenhuyse, R. Nauen et al., Mitochondrial heteroplasmy and the evolution of insecticide resistance: Non-Mendelian inheritance in action, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, pp.5980-5985, 2008.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0802224105

R. Levins, THE EFFECT OF RANDOM VARIATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES ON POPULATION GROWTH, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.62, issue.4, pp.1061-1065, 1969.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.62.4.1061

J. Li and D. C. Margolies, Responses to direct and indirect selection on aerial dispersal behaviour in Tetranychus urticae, Heredity, vol.72, issue.1, pp.10-22, 1994.
DOI : 10.1038/hdy.1994.2

H. Kokko and A. López-sepulcre, The ecogenetic link between demography and evolution: can we bridge the gap between theory and data?, Ecology Letters, vol.60, issue.9, pp.773-782, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nature01767

E. Macke, S. Magalhaes, F. Bach, and I. Olivieri, Experimental Evolution of Reduced Sex Ratio Adjustment Under Local Mate Competition, Science, vol.334, issue.6059, pp.1127-1129, 2011.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1212177

S. Magalhães, J. Fayard, A. Janssen, D. Carbonell, and I. Olivieri, Adaptation in a spider mite population after long-term evolution on a single host plant, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.103, issue.5, pp.2016-2027, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2007.01365.x

J. H. Marden, Nature's inordinate fondness for metabolic enzymes: why metabolic enzyme loci are so frequently targets of selection, Molecular Ecology, vol.577, issue.Suppl 1, pp.5743-5764, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/mec.12534

L. Margulis and D. Sagan, What Is Life?, 2000.

K. Monro and D. J. Marshall, Faster Is Not Always Better: Selection on Growth Rate Fluctuates across Life History and Environments, The American Naturalist, vol.183, issue.6, pp.798-809, 2014.
DOI : 10.1086/676006

I. Olivieri, D. Couvet, and P. H. Gouyon, The genetics of transient populations: Research at the metapopulation level. Trends in ecology & evolution, pp.207-210, 1990.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00340189

G. C. Packard and T. J. Boardman, The use of percentages and size-specific indices to normalize physiological data for variation in body size: wasted time, wasted effort? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, pp.37-44, 1999.

P. A. Parsons, Environments and evolution: interactions between stress, resource inadequacy and energetic efficiency, Biological Reviews, vol.55, issue.04, pp.589-610, 2005.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2003.2464

O. Ronce, F. Perret, and I. Olivieri, Landscape dynamics and evolution of colonizer syndromes: interactions between reproductive effortand dispersal in a metapopulation, Evolutionary Ecology, vol.74, issue.3, pp.233-260, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1011068005057

C. Sulmon, J. Van-baaren, F. Cabello-hurtado, G. Gouesbet, F. Hennion et al., Abiotic stressors and stress responses: What commonalities appear between species across biological organization levels?, Environmental Pollution, vol.202, pp.66-77, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.03.013

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01132697

W. R. Terra and C. Ferreira, Insect digestive enzymes: properties, compartmentalization and function, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry, vol.109, issue.1, pp.1-62, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0305-0491(94)90141-4

J. M. Travis and C. Dytham, Habitat persistence, habitat availability and the evolution of dispersal, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.266, issue.1420, p.723, 1999.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1999.0696

L. Väremo, J. Nielsen, and I. Nookaew, Enriching the gene set analysis of genome-wide data by incorporating directionality of gene expression and combining statistical hypotheses and methods, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.41, issue.8, pp.4378-91, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkt111

C. W. Wheat, Dispersal genetics: emerging insights from fruitflies, butterflies, and beyond : Dispersal Ecology and Evolution -oi. Dispersal ecology and evolution, pp.95-107, 2012.

C. W. Wheat and J. Hill, Pgi: the ongoing saga of a candidate gene, Current Opinion in Insect Science, vol.4, pp.42-47, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cois.2014.10.003

F. Zajitschek, S. R. Zajitschek, U. Friberg, and A. Maklakov, Interactive effects of sex, social environment, dietary restriction, and methionine on survival and reproduction in fruit flies, AGE, vol.128, issue.4, pp.1193-204, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s11357-012-9445-3

V. Zhurov, M. Navarro, K. A. Bruinsma, V. Arbona, M. E. Santamaria et al., Reciprocal Responses in the Interaction between Arabidopsis and the Cell-Content-Feeding Chelicerate Herbivore Spider Mite, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol.164, issue.1, pp.384-99, 2014.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.113.231555