Haplotype Detection from Next-Generation Sequencing in High-Ploidy-Level Species: 45S rDNA Gene Copies in the Hexaploid Spartina maritima

Abstract : Gene and whole-genome duplications are widespread in plant nuclear genomes, resulting in sequence heterogeneity. Identification of duplicated genes may be particularly challenging in highly redundant genomes, especially when there are no diploid parents as a reference. Here, we developed a pipeline to detect the different copies in the ribosomal RNA gene family in the hexaploid grass Spartina maritima from next-generation sequencing (Roche-454) reads. The heterogeneity of the different domains of the highly repeated 45S unit was explored by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and assembling reads based on shared polymorphisms. SNPs were validated using comparisons with Illumina sequence data sets and by cloning and Sanger (re)sequencing. Using this approach, 29 validated polymorphisms and 11 validated haplotypes were reported (out of 34 and 20, respectively, that were initially predicted by our program). The rDNA domains of S. maritima have similar lengths as those found in other Poaceae, apart from the 5′-ETS, which is approximately two-times longer in S. maritima. Sequence homogeneity was encountered in coding regions and both internal transcribed spacers (ITS), whereas high intragenomic variability was detected in the intergenic spacer (IGS) and the external transcribed spacer (ETS). Molecular cytogenetic analysis by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed the presence of one pair of 45S rDNA signals on the chromosomes of S. maritima instead of three expected pairs for a hexaploid genome, indicating loss of duplicated homeologous loci through the diploidization process. The procedure developed here may be used at any ploidy level and using different sequencing technologies
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Submitted on : Friday, February 5, 2016 - 2:17:25 PM
Last modification on : Monday, April 29, 2019 - 2:30:48 PM

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Julien Boutte, Benoît Aliaga, Oscar Lima, Julie Ferreira De Carvalho, Abdelkader Aïnouche, et al.. Haplotype Detection from Next-Generation Sequencing in High-Ploidy-Level Species: 45S rDNA Gene Copies in the Hexaploid Spartina maritima. G3, Genetics Society of America, 2016, 6 (1), pp.29--40. ⟨10.1534/g3.115.023242⟩. ⟨hal-01269912⟩

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