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HACEK endocarditis: state-of-the-art

Abstract : The HACEK group of bacteria - Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter spp. (A. actinomycetemcomitans, A. aphrophilus, A. paraphrophilus, and A. segnis), Cardiobacterium spp. (C. hominis, C. valvarum), Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella spp. (K. kingae, K. denitrificans) - are fastidious gram-negative bacteria, part of the normal microbiota of oral and upper respiratory tract in humans. Although their pathogenicity is limited, they are responsible for 1-3% of all infective endocarditis. HACEK endocarditis mostly affect patients with underlying heart disease or prosthetic valves, and are characterized by an insidious course, with a mean diagnosis delay of 1 month (Haemophilus spp.) to 3 months (Aggregatibacter and Cardiobacterium spp.). The advent of continuously monitored blood culture systems with enriched media has erased the need for extended incubation for the diagnosis of HACEK endocarditis. Medical treatment relies on third-generation cephalosporin, with a favorable outcome in 80-90% of cases, with or without cardiac surgery
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Submitted on : Friday, June 10, 2016 - 4:27:42 PM
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Matthieu Revest, Gérald Egmann, Vincent Cattoir, Pierre Tattevin. HACEK endocarditis: state-of-the-art. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, Expert Reviews, 2016, 14 (5), pp.523-530. ⟨10.1586/14787210.2016.1164032⟩. ⟨hal-01296779⟩

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