Multicenter Experience with Boceprevir or Telaprevir to Treat Hepatitis C Recurrence after Liver Transplantation: When Present Becomes Past, What Lessons for Future?

Abstract : BACKGROUND AND AIMS: First generation protease inhibitors (PI) with peg-interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) have been the only therapy available for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in most countries for 3 years. We have investigated the efficacy and tolerance of this triple therapy in transplanted patients experiencing a recurrence of HCV infection on the liver graft. PATIENTS: This cohort study enrolled 81 liver transplant patients (Male: 76%, mean age: 55.8±9.7 years) with severe HCV recurrence (F3 or F4: n = 34 (42%), treatment experienced: n = 44 (54%)), treated with boceprevir (n = 36; 44%) or telaprevir (n = 45; 56%). We assessed the percentages of patients with sustained virological responses 24 weeks after therapy (SVR24), and safety. RESULTS: The SVR24 rate was 47% (telaprevir: 42%; boceprevir: 53%, P = ns). At baseline, a normal bilirubin level (p = 0.0145) and albumin level \textgreater35g/L (p = 0.0372) and an initial RBV dosage of ≥800 mg/day (p = 0.0033) predicted SVR24. During treatment, achieving an early virological response after 12 weeks was the strongest independent factor to predict SVR24 (p\textless0.0001). A premature discontinuation of anti-HCV therapy due to a serious adverse event (SAE) was observed in 22 patients (27%). Hematological toxicity, infections and deaths were observed in 95%, 28% and 7% of patients, respectively. A history of post-LT antiviral therapy and thrombocytopenia (\textless50G/L) during treatment were both independent predictors of the occurrence of infections or SAE (p = 0.0169 and p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The use of first generation PI after liver transplantation enabled an SVR24 rate of 47% in genotype 1 patients, but induced a high rate of SAE. The identification of predictive factors for a response to treatment, and the occurrence of SAE, have enabled us to establish limits for the use of this anti-HCV therapy in the transplant setting
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Submitted on : Friday, June 3, 2016 - 3:02:34 PM
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Audrey Coilly, Jérôme Dumortier, Danielle Botta-Fridlund, Marianne Latournerie, Vincent Leroy, et al.. Multicenter Experience with Boceprevir or Telaprevir to Treat Hepatitis C Recurrence after Liver Transplantation: When Present Becomes Past, What Lessons for Future?. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2015, 10 (9), pp.e0138091. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0138091⟩. ⟨hal-01326372⟩

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