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Uncovering the benefits of fluctuating thermal regimes on cold tolerance of drosophila flies by combined metabolomic and lipidomic approach

Abstract : When exposed to constant low temperatures (CLTs), insects often suffer from cumulative physiological injuries that can severely compromise their fitness and survival. Yet, mortality can be considerably lowered when the cold stress period is interrupted by periodic warm interruption(s), referred to as fluctuating thermal regimes, FTRs. In this study, we have shown that FTRs strongly promoted cold tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster adults. We then assessed whether this marked phenotypic shift was associated with detectable physiological changes, such as synthesis of cryoprotectants and/or membrane remodeling. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two different time-series Omics analyzes in adult flies submitted to CLTs vs. FTRs: metabolomics (GC/MS) and lipidomics (LC/ESI/MS) targeting membrane phospholipids. We observed increasing levels in several polyhydric alcohols (arabitol, erythritol, sorbitol, mannitol, glycerol), sugars (fructose, mannose) and amino acids (serine, alanine, glutamine) in flies under CLT. Prolonged exposure to low temperature was also associated with a marked deviation of metabolic homeostasis and warm interruptions as short as 2 h were sufficient to periodically return the metabolic system to functionality. Lipidomics revealed an increased relative proportion of phosphatidylethanolamines and a shortening of fatty acyl chains in flies exposed to cold, likely to compensate for the ordering effect of low temperature on membranes. We found a remarkable correspondence in the time-course of changes between the metabolic and phospholipids networks, both suggesting a fast homeostatic regeneration during warm intervals under FTRs. In consequence, we suggest that periodic opportunities to restore system-wide homeostasis contribute to promote cold tolerance under FTRs. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
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Hervé Colinet, David Renault, Marion Javal, Petra Berková, Vladimir Koštál. Uncovering the benefits of fluctuating thermal regimes on cold tolerance of drosophila flies by combined metabolomic and lipidomic approach. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, Elsevier, 2016, 1861 (11), pp.1736-1745. ⟨10.1016/j.bbalip.2016.08.008⟩. ⟨hal-01371831⟩

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