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LGL leukemia: from pathogenesis to treatment

Abstract : Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia has been recognized by the World Health Organization classifications amongst mature T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms. There are 3 categories: chronic T-cell leukemia and NK-cell lymphocytosis, which are similarly indolent diseases characterized by cytopenias and autoimmune conditions as opposed to aggressive NK-cell LGL leukemia. Clonal LGL expansion arise from chronic antigenic stimulation, which promotes dysregulation of apoptosis, mainly due to constitutive activation of survival pathways including Jak/Stat, MapK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt, Ras-Raf-1, MEK1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, sphingolipid, and nuclear factor-κB. Socs3 downregulation may also contribute to Stat3 activation. Interleukin 15 plays a key role in activation of leukemic LGL. Several somatic mutations including Stat3, Stat5b, and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 have been demonstrated recently in LGL leukemia. Because these mutations are present in less than half of the patients, they cannot completely explain LGL leukemogenesis. A better mechanistic understanding of leukemic LGL survival will allow future consideration of a more targeted therapeutic approach than the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy.
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Thierry Lamy, Aline Moignet, Thomas P. Loughran. LGL leukemia: from pathogenesis to treatment. Blood, American Society of Hematology, 2017, 129 (9), pp.1082-1094. ⟨10.1182/blood-2016-08-692590⟩. ⟨hal-01484973⟩

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