J. Ollerton and A. Lack, Relationships between flowering phenology, plant size and reproductive success in Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae), Plant Ecology, vol.139, issue.1, pp.35-47, 1998.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1009798320049

P. Jia, T. Bayaerta, X. Li, and G. Du, Relationships between Flowering Phenology and Functional Traits in Eastern Tibet Alpine Meadow, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, vol.43, issue.4, pp.585-592, 2011.
DOI : 10.1657/1938-4246-43.4.585

R. Kipling and J. Warren, An investigation of temporal flowering segregation in species-rich grasslands, Ecological Research, vol.77, issue.2, pp.213-224, 2014.
DOI : 10.2307/2265575

H. Kesselring, G. Armbruster, E. Hamann, and J. Stöcklin, Past selection explains differentiation in flowering phenology of nearby populations of a common alpine plant, Alpine Botany, vol.10, issue.2, pp.113-124, 2015.
DOI : 10.2307/3237182

A. Catorci, L. Carotenuto, and R. Gatti, Flowering patterns in sub-Mediterranean grasslands: a functional approach, Plant Ecology and Evolution, vol.145, issue.2, pp.165-175, 2012.
DOI : 10.5091/plecevo.2012.634

O. Cruz-neto, I. Machado, J. Duarte, and A. Lopes, Synchronous phenology of hawkmoths (Sphingidae) and Inga species (Fabaceae???Mimosoideae): implications for the restoration of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil, Biodiversity and Conservation, vol.156, issue.5, pp.751-765, 2011.
DOI : 10.1086/303378

T. Petanidou, W. Ellis, N. Margaris, and V. D. , Constraints on Flowering Phenology in a Phryganic (East Mediterranean Shrub) Community, American Journal of Botany, vol.82, issue.5, pp.607-620, 1995.
DOI : 10.2307/2445419

G. Montserrat-martí, J. Camarero, S. Palacio, C. Pérez-rontomé, R. Milla et al., Summer-drought constrains the phenology and growth of two coexisting Mediterranean oaks with contrasting leaf habit: implications for their persistence and reproduction, Trees, vol.5, issue.100, pp.787-799, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00196636

R. Gao, X. Yang, G. Liu, Z. Huang, and J. Walck, Effects of rainfall pattern on the growth and fecundity of a dominant dune annual in a semi-arid ecosystem, Plant and Soil, vol.374, issue.1-2, pp.335-347, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s11104-013-1892-9

J. Craine, E. Wolkovich, E. Towne, and S. Kembel, Flowering phenology as a functional trait in a tallgrass prairie, New Phytologist, vol.9, issue.3, pp.673-682, 2012.
DOI : 10.1890/100033

G. Du and W. Qi, Trade-offs between flowering time, plant height, and seed size within and across 11 communities of a QingHai-Tibetan flora, Plant Ecology, vol.102, issue.2, pp.321-333, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-009-5500-4_24

L. Halletto, R. Standish, and R. Hobbs, Seed mass and summer drought survival in a Mediterranean-climate ecosystem, Plant Ecology, vol.131, issue.1, pp.1479-1489, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00442-001-0855-7

D. Barboni, S. Harrison, P. Bartlein, G. Jalut, M. New et al., Relationships between plant traits and climate in the Mediterranean region: A pollen data analysis, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.1, issue.5, pp.635-646, 2004.
DOI : 10.2307/1941909

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00765369

P. Chesson, R. Gebauer, S. Schwinning, N. Huntly, K. Wiegand et al., Resource pulses, species interactions, and diversity maintenance in arid and semi-arid environments, Oecologia, vol.38, issue.2, pp.236-253, 2004.
DOI : 10.1006/jare.1998.0362

J. Schenk and R. Jackson, THE GLOBAL BIOGEOGRAPHY OF ROOTS, Ecological Monographs, vol.72, issue.3, pp.311-328, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/1998GL900216

A. Lima and M. Rodal, Phenology and wood density of plants growing in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil, Journal of Arid Environments, vol.74, issue.11, pp.1363-1373, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2010.05.009

T. Kozlowski and S. Pallardy, Acclimation and Adaptive Responses of Woody Plants to Environmental Stresses, The Botanical Review, vol.67, issue.2, pp.270-334, 2002.
DOI : 10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0270:AAAROW]2.0.CO;2

?. Ak?nc? and D. Lösel, Plant water-stress response mechanisms, Water stress. Rijeka: In-Tech; 2012, pp.15-42

M. Sánchez-blanco, A. ´. , S. Ortuño, M. Ruiz-sánchez, and M. , Root System Response to Drought and Salinity: Root Distribution and Water Transport, pp.325-352, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-54276-3_15

J. Fair and D. Breshearsa, Drought stress and fluctuating asymmetry in Quercus undulata leaves: confounding effects of absolute and relative amounts of stress?, Journal of Arid Environments, vol.62, issue.2, pp.235-249, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.11.010

A. Aïdoud, Contribution à l'e ´tude des e ´cosystèmes pâturés (Hautes Plaines Algéro-Oranaises, Algérie)

M. Selwyn and N. Parthasarathy, Reproductive Traits and Phenology of Plants in Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest on the Coromandel Coast of India, Biodiversity and Conservation, vol.35, issue.10, pp.3207-3234, 2006.
DOI : 10.1006/jare.2002.0976

J. Gómez, R. Zamora, J. Hódar, and D. Garcia, Experimental study of pollination by ants in Mediterranean high mountain and arid habitats, Oecologia, vol.6, issue.2, pp.236-242, 1996.
DOI : 10.2307/2418629

Q. Hegland and Ø. Totland, Relationships between species??? floral traits and pollinator visitation in a temperate grassland, Oecologia, vol.77, issue.4, pp.586-594, 2005.
DOI : 10.1139/b93-124

K. Faegri and L. Van-der-pijl, The principles of pollination ecology, 1979.

J. Ollerton, R. Alarcón, N. Waser, M. V. Price, M. Watts et al., A global test of the pollination syndrome hypothesis, Annals of Botany, vol.103, issue.9, pp.1471-1480, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/aob/mcp031

R. Junker, N. Bluüthgen, T. Brehm, J. Binkenstein, J. Paulus et al., Specialization on traits as basis for the niche-breadth of flower visitors and as structuring mechanism of ecological networks, Functional Ecology, vol.24, issue.12, pp.329-341, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/btn453

J. Elzinga, A. Atlan, A. Biere, L. Gigord, A. Weis et al., Time after time: flowering phenology and biotic interactions, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.22, issue.8, pp.432-439, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2007.05.006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00168175

J. Gómez, J. Bosch, F. Perfectti, J. Fernández, M. Abdelaziz et al., Spatial variation in selection on corolla shape in a generalist plant is promoted by the preference patterns of its local pollinators, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.71, issue.4, pp.2241-2249, 2008.
DOI : 10.2307/1940307

C. Torres and L. Galetto, Are nectar sugar composition and corolla tube length related to the diversity of insects that visit Asteraceae flowers? Plant boil, pp.360-366, 2002.

J. Bosch, J. Retana, and X. Cerdá, Flowering phenology, floral traits and pollinator composition in a herbaceous Mediterranean plant community, Oecologia, vol.109, issue.4, pp.583-591, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s004420050120

URL : https://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/65231/1/retana.pdf

P. Ortiz, R. Berjano, M. Talavera, L. Rodríguez-zayas, and M. Arista, Flower colour polymorphism in Lysimachia arvensis: How is the red morph maintained in Mediterranean environments?, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, vol.17, issue.2, pp.142-150, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ppees.2015.01.004

E. Pringle, E. Akçay, T. Raab, R. Dirzo, and D. Gordon, Water Stress Strengthens Mutualism Among Ants, Trees, and Scale Insects, PLoS Biology, vol.105, issue.4, pp.1001705-24223521, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001705.s019

URL : http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001705

A. Villarreal, E. Freeman, and C. , Effects of Temperature and Water Stress on Some Floral Nectar Characteristics in Ipomopsis longiflora (Polemoniaceae) under Controlled Conditions, Botanical Gazette, vol.151, issue.1, pp.5-9, 1990.
DOI : 10.1086/337797

F. Amghar, E. Forey, P. Margerie, E. Langlois, L. Brouri et al., Grazing exclosure and plantation: a synchronic study of two restoration techniques improving plant community and soil properties in arid degraded steppes (Algeria), Rev E ´ col, vol.67, pp.257-269, 2012.

L. Kadik-achoubi, Etude phytosociologique et phytoécologique des formations à pin d'Alep (Pinus halepensis mill) de l'e ´tage bioclimatique semi-aride algérien, 2005.

M. Westoby, A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme, Plant and Soil, vol.199, issue.2, pp.213-227, 1998.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1004327224729

N. Pérez-harguindeguy, S. Díaz, E. Garnier, S. Lavorel, H. Poorter et al., New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide, Australian Journal of Botany, vol.61, issue.3, pp.167-234, 2013.
DOI : 10.1071/BT12225

E. Oosterom and E. Acevedo, Leaf area and crop growth in relation to phenology of barley in Mediterranean environments, Plant and Soil, vol.31, issue.2, pp.223-237, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00012860

P. Quezel and S. Santa, Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales. 2 vol, Paris: CNRS, vol.ed, 1962.

C. Albert, W. Thuiller, N. Yoccoz, A. Soudant, F. Boucher et al., Intraspecific functional variability: extent, structure and sources of variation, Journal of Ecology, vol.22, issue.3, pp.604-613, 2010.
DOI : 10.1080/11956860.2003.11682753

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01651.x/pdf

J. Madre, . Mesurim-por, and . Sofware, Version 2013. Accessed Available from http, 2015.

G. Bernardello, A systematic survey of floral nectaries, Nectaries and Nectar. Netherlands t, pp.19-128, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4020-5937-7_2

M. Yuan, Model selection and estimation in regression with grouped variables, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology), vol.58, issue.1, pp.49-97, 2006.
DOI : 10.1198/016214502753479356

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

W. Larsen and S. Mccleary, The Use of Partial Residual Plots in Regression Analysis, Technometrics, vol.33, issue.3, pp.781-790, 1972.
DOI : 10.1214/aoms/1177704711

R. Ricklefs and J. Starck, Applications of Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts: A Mixed Progress Report, Oikos, vol.77, issue.1, pp.167-172, 1996.
DOI : 10.2307/3545598

A. Prinzing, W. Durka, S. Klotz, and R. Brandl, The niche of higher plants: evidence for phylogenetic conservatism, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.268, issue.1483, pp.2383-2389, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2001.1801

T. Zaher-ara, N. Boroomand, and M. Sadat-hosseini, Physiological and morphological response to drought stress in seedlings of ten citrus, Trees, vol.11, issue.3, pp.985-993, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/s10310-006-0214-y

A. Sánchez, M. Albert, M. Rodríguez, and A. Escudero, Extended flowering in a Mediterranean shrub: Seasonal variability in seed quality and quantity, Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, vol.207, issue.11, pp.821-827, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.flora.2012.09.007

A. Catorci, S. Cesaretti, R. Gatti, and F. Tardella, Trait-related flowering patterns in submediterranean mountain meadows, Plant Ecology, vol.10, issue.4, pp.1315-1328, 2012.
DOI : 10.1079/9780851993515.0067

E. G. Garnier and G. Laurent, Leaf anatomy, specific mass and water content in congeneric annual and perennial grass species, New Phytologist, vol.88, issue.4, pp.725-736, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00317710

V. Scaven and N. Rafferty, Physiological effects of climate warming on flowering plants and insect pollinators and potential consequences for their interactions, Current Zoology, vol.59, issue.3, pp.418-426, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/czoolo/59.3.418

M. Westoby, M. Leishman, and J. Lord, On Misinterpreting the `Phylogenetic Correction', The Journal of Ecology, vol.83, issue.3, pp.531-534, 1995.
DOI : 10.2307/2261605

T. Davies, E. Wolkovich, N. Kraft, N. Salamin, J. Allen et al., Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology, Journal of Ecology, vol.106, issue.6, pp.1520-1530, 2013.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JD000115

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12154/pdf