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Maternal short-chain fructooligosaccharide supplementation influences intestinal immune system maturation in piglets

Abstract : Peripartum nutrition is crucial for developing the immune system of neonates. We hypothesized that maternal short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) supplementation could accelerate the development of intestinal immunity in offspring. Thirty-four sows received a standard or a scFOS supplemented diet (10 g scFOS/d) for the last 4 weeks of gestation and the 4 weeks of lactation. Colostrum and milk immunoglobulins (Ig) and TGFβ1 concentrations were evaluated on the day of delivery and at d 6 and d 21 postpartum. Piglet intestinal structure, the immunologic features of jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph node cells were analysed at postnatal d 21. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured over time in the intestinal contents of suckling and weaned piglets. Colostral IgA (P<0.05) significantly increased because of scFOS and TGFβ1 concentrations tended to improve (P<0.1). IFNγ secretion by stimulated Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node cells, and secretory IgA production by unstimulated Peyer's patch cells were increased (P<0.05) in postnatal d 21 scFOS piglets. These differences were associated with a higher proportion of activated CD25+CD4α+ T cells among the CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (P<0.05) as assessed by flow cytometry. IFNγ secretion was positively correlated with the population of activated T lymphocytes (P<0.05). Total short-chain fatty acids were unchanged between groups during lactation but were higher in caecal contents of d 90 scFOS piglets (P<0.05); specifically propionate, butyrate and valerate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that maternal scFOS supplementation modified the intestinal immune functions in piglets in association with increased colostral immunity. Such results underline the key role of maternal nutrition in supporting the postnatal development of mucosal immunity.
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Cindy Le Bourgot, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Laurence Le Normand, Gerard Savary, Enrique Menendez-Aparicio, et al.. Maternal short-chain fructooligosaccharide supplementation influences intestinal immune system maturation in piglets. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2014, 9 (9), pp.e107508. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0107508⟩. ⟨hal-01545743⟩

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