Signature of Microbial Dysbiosis in Periodontitis

Abstract : Periodontitis is driven by disproportionate host inflammatory immune responses induced by an imbalance in the composition of oral bacteria; this instigates microbial dysbiosis, along with failed resolution of the chronic destructive inflammation. The objectives of this study were to identify microbial signatures for health and chronic periodontitis at the genus level and to propose a model of dysbiosis, including the calculation of bacterial ratios. Published sequencing data obtained from several different studies (196 subgingival samples from patients with chronic periodontitis and 422 subgingival samples from healthy subjects) were pooled and subjected to a new microbiota analysis using the same Visualization and Analysis of Microbial Population Structures (VAMPS) pipeline, to identify microbiota specific to health and disease. Microbiota were visualized using CoNet and Cytoscape. Dysbiosis ratios, defined as the percentage of genera associated with disease relative to the percentage of genera associated with health, were calculated to distinguish disease from health. Correlations between the proposed dysbiosis ratio and the periodontal pocket depth were tested with a different set of data obtained from a recent study, to confirm the relevance of the ratio as a potential indicator of dysbiosis. Beta diversity showed significant clustering of periodontitis-associated microbiota, at the genus level, according to the clinical status and independent of the methods used. Specific genera (Veillonella, Neisseria, Rothia, Corynebacterium, and Actinomyces) were highly prevalent (>95%) in health, while other genera (Eubacterium, Campylobacter, Treponema, and Tannerella) were associated with chronic periodontitis. The calculation of dysbiosis ratios based on the relative abundance of the genera found in health versus periodontitis was tested. Nonperiodontitis samples were significantly identifiable by low ratios, compared to chronic periodontitis samples. When applied to a subgingival sample set with well-defined clinical data, the method showed a strong correlation between the dysbiosis ratio, as well as a simplified ratio (Porphyromonas, Treponema, and Tannerella to Rothia and Corynebacterium), and pocket depth. Microbial analysis of chronic periodontitis can be correlated with the pocket depth through specific signatures for microbial dysbiosis.
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Applied and Environmental Microbiology, American Society for Microbiology, 2017, 83 (14), pp. e00462-17 〈10.1128/AEM.00462-17〉
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Vincent Meuric, Sandrine Le Gall-David, Emile Boyer, Luis Acuña-Amador, Bénédicte Martin, et al.. Signature of Microbial Dysbiosis in Periodontitis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, American Society for Microbiology, 2017, 83 (14), pp. e00462-17 〈10.1128/AEM.00462-17〉. 〈hal-01560240〉

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