, Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité ? Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), F-38000 Grenoble, France. 7 Pole Sante Publique, p.38000

F. Grenoble, (CHU) Besançon, F-25000 Besançon, France. 9 Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm) Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC) 1431, F-25000, p.33000

F. Bordeaux, 11 Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm) Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC) 1401, pp.33000-33012

, Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC) 1401, p.33000

F. Bordeaux, 13 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Bordeaux, p.33000

F. Bordeaux, 14 Service de Radiologie, Hôpital Ambroise-Paré, p.15

, recherche médicale (Inserm) Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC) 1429, Hôpital Raymond-Poincaré, p.17

, Inserm) Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC) 1403, p.19

. Institut-national-de-la-santé-et-de-la-recherche-médicale, 20 Service Imagerie Abdominale et Générale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, F-35000 Rennes, France. 21 Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm) Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC) 1414, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, F-35000 Rennes, France. 22 Département Imagerie Médicale, 23 Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm) Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC) 1415, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Tours, F-37000 Tours, France. 24 Service References

K. Ikeda, Y. Osaki, H. Nakanishi, A. Nasu, Y. Kawamura et al., Recent Progress in Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Oncology, vol.87, issue.s1, pp.73-80, 2014.
DOI : 10.1159/000368148

C. Althoff, M. Bollow, E. Feist, S. Marticorena-garcia, I. Eshed et al., CT-guided corticosteroid injection of the sacroiliac joints: quality assurance and standardized prospective evaluation of long-term effectiveness over six months, Clinical Rheumatology, vol.26, issue.5, pp.1079-84, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s00296-005-0008-0

M. Arnolli, N. Hanumara, M. Franken, D. Brouwer, and I. Broeders, An overview of systems for CT- and MRI-guided percutaneous needle placement in the thorax and abdomen, The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, vol.12, issue.7, pp.458-75, 2015.
DOI : 10.3390/s120709423

T. Schubert, A. Jacob, M. Pansini, D. Liu, A. Gutzeit et al., CT-Guided Interventions Using a Free-Hand, Optical Tracking System: Initial Clinical Experience, CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol.35, issue.5, pp.1055-62, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s00270-011-0232-9

R. Grasso, E. Faiella, G. Luppi, E. Schena, F. Giurazza et al., Percutaneous lung biopsy: comparison between an augmented reality CT navigation system and standard CT-guided technique, International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, vol.18, issue.9, pp.837-885, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jvir.2007.06.014

D. Grand, M. Atalay, J. Cronan, W. Mayo-smith, and D. Dupuy, CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy: Comparison of conventional CT fluoroscopy to CT fluoroscopy with electromagnetic navigation system in 60 consecutive patients, European Journal of Radiology, vol.79, issue.2, pp.133-139, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.05.030

P. Gevenois, G. Sergent, D. Myttenaere, M. Beernaerts, A. Rocmans et al., CTguided percutaneous drainage of an anterior mediastinal abscess with a 16 F catheter, Eur Respir J, vol.8, pp.869-70, 1995.

F. Kinoshita, T. Kato, K. Sugiura, M. Nishimura, T. Kinoshita et al., CT-Guided Transthoracic Needle Biopsy Using a Puncture Site-Down Positioning Technique, American Journal of Roentgenology, vol.187, issue.4, pp.926-958, 2006.
DOI : 10.2214/AJR.05.0226

L. Thanos, L. Poulou, L. Mailli, M. Pomoni, and D. Kelekis, Image-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of a Pancreatic Tumor with a New Triple Spiral-Shaped Electrode, CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol.184, issue.Suppl 3, pp.215-223, 2010.
DOI : 10.2214/ajr.184.3_supplement.0184s120

K. Mukhtar, S. Mahmood, and S. Umair, CT guided percutaneous renal biopsy versus ultrasound guided for obtaining adequate tissue, J Pak Med Assoc, vol.62, pp.880-882, 2012.

N. Rathmann, U. Haeusler, P. Diezler, C. Weiss, M. Kostrzewa et al., Evaluation of Radiation Exposure of??Medical Staff During CT-Guided Interventions, Journal of the American College of Radiology, vol.12, issue.1, pp.82-91, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jacr.2014.04.012

N. Sainani, R. Arellano, P. Shyn, D. Gervais, P. Mueller et al., The challenging image-guided abdominal mass biopsy: established and emerging techniques ???if you can see it, you can biopsy it???, Abdominal Imaging, vol.229, issue.1015, pp.672-96, 2013.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.2293021496

E. Slotkin, P. Patel, and J. Suarez, Accuracy of Fluoroscopic Guided Acetabular Component Positioning During Direct Anterior Total Hip Arthroplasty, The Journal of Arthroplasty, vol.30, issue.9, pp.102-108, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.arth.2015.03.046

G. Brandt, A. Zimolong, L. Carrat, P. Merloz, H. Staudte et al., CRIGOS: a compact robot for image-guided orthopedic surgery, IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol.3, issue.4, pp.252-60, 1999.
DOI : 10.1109/4233.809169

G. Brandt, K. Radermacher, A. Zimolong, G. Rau, P. Merloz et al., CRIGOS ??? Development of a compact robot system for image-guided orthopedic surgery, Der Orthop??de, vol.29, issue.7, pp.645-654, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/s001320050506

O. Ukimura, Image-fusion for biopsy, intervention, and surgical navigation in urology http://www.intechopen.com/ books/image-fusion/image-fusion-for-biopsy-intervention-and-surgicalnavigation-in-urology, 2011.
DOI : 10.5772/15125

URL : http://www.intechopen.com/download/pdf/13000

V. Uruc, R. Ozden, Y. Dogramac?, A. Kalac?, B. Dikmen et al., The comparison of freehand fluoroscopic guidance and electromagnetic navigation for distal locking of intramedullary implants, Injury, vol.44, issue.6, pp.863-869, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.injury.2012.12.009

G. Weiner, S. Chivukula, C. Chen, D. Ding, J. Engh et al., Ommaya reservoir with ventricular catheter placement for chemotherapy with frameless and pinless electromagnetic surgical neuronavigation, Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol.130, pp.61-67, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.12.018

M. Mahan, R. Spetzler, and P. Nakaji, Electromagnetic stereotactic navigation for external ventricular drain placement in the intensive care unit, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol.20, issue.12, pp.1718-1740, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jocn.2013.03.005

M. Chen, L. Gu, W. Zhang, C. Yang, and M. Dong, Electromagnetic navigationguided radiofrequency thermocoagulation in trigeminal neuralgia: technical note with three case reports, J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg, vol.74, pp.251-258, 2013.

R. Ko, F. Soucy, J. Denstedt, and H. Razvi, Percutaneous nephrolithotomy made easier: a practical guide, tips and tricks, BJU International, vol.15, issue.5, pp.535-544, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02768008

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2007.07259.x/pdf

C. Chang, K. Fang, T. Huang, C. Wang, and P. Cheng, Three-dimensional analysis of the accuracy of optic and electromagnetic navigation systems using surface registration in live endoscopic sinus surgery, Rhinology journal, vol.54, issue.1, pp.343-351, 2013.
DOI : 10.4193/Rhin15.131

P. Soyer, Y. Fargeaudou, M. Boudiaf, L. Hamzi, and R. Rymer, Proc??dures interventionnelles percutan??es abdominales et pelviennes sous contr??le TDM ?? l???aide d???un syst??me de guidage fluoroscopique int??gr?? ?? 21??mA??: analyse de 99 cas, Journal de Radiologie, vol.89, issue.5, pp.565-70, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0221-0363(08)71482-3

H. Prosch, A. Stadler, M. Schilling, S. Bürklin, E. Eisenhuber et al., CT fluoroscopy-guided vs. multislice CT biopsy mode-guided lung biopsies: Accuracy, complications and radiation dose, European Journal of Radiology, vol.81, issue.5, pp.1029-1062, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.01.064

M. Nagel, G. Schmidt, R. Petzold, and W. Kalender, A Navigation System for Minimally Invasive CT-Guided Interventions, Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv, vol.8, pp.33-40, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/11566489_5

P. Bruners, T. Penzkofer, M. Nagel, R. Elfring, N. Gronloh et al., Electromagnetic tracking for CT-guided spine interventions: phantom, ex-vivo and in-vivo results, European Radiology, vol.18, issue.4, pp.990-994, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/01.RVI.0000148827.62296.B4

M. Wallace, S. Gupta, and M. Hicks, Out-of-Plane Computed-Tomography-Guided Biopsy Using a Magnetic-Field-Based Navigation System, CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol.24, issue.2, pp.108-121, 2006.
DOI : 10.2214/ajr.179.1.1790109

L. Moncharmont, A. Moreau-gaudry, M. Medici, and I. Bricault, Phantom evaluation of a navigation system for out-of-plane CT-guided puncture, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, vol.96, issue.6, pp.531-537, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.diii.2015.03.002

P. Durand, A. Moreau-gaudry, A. Silvent, J. Frandon, E. Chipon et al., Computer assisted electromagnetic navigation improves accuracy in computed tomography guided interventions: A prospective randomized clinical trial, PLOS ONE, vol.35, issue.no 6, p.173751, 2017.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0173751.s003

URL : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173751

D. Sacks, T. Mcclenny, J. Cardella, and C. Lewis, Society of Interventional Radiology Clinical Practice Guidelines, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol.14, issue.9, pp.199-202, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/01.RVI.0000094584.83406.3e

URL : http://www.sirweb.org/clinical/cpg/S199.pdf

C. Bakal, D. Sacks, D. Burke, J. Cardella, P. Chopra et al., Quality Improvement Guidelines for Adult Percutaneous Abscess and Fluid Drainage, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol.6, issue.1, pp.223-228, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1051-0443(95)71058-2

J. Cardella, C. Bakal, R. Bertino, D. Burke, A. Drooz et al., Quality improvement guidelines for image-guided percutaneous biopsy in adults, J Vasc Interv Radiol, vol.14, pp.227-257, 2003.

N. Tomiyama, Y. Yasuhara, Y. Nakajima, S. Adachi, Y. Arai et al., CT-guided needle biopsy of lung lesions: A survey of severe complication based on 9783 biopsies in Japan, European Journal of Radiology, vol.59, issue.1, pp.60-64, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejrad.2006.02.001

R. Newcombe, Interval estimation for the difference between independent proportions: comparison of eleven methods, Statistics in Medicine, vol.17, issue.8, pp.873-90, 1998.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19980430)17:8<873::AID-SIM779>3.0.CO;2-I

URL : http://psych.stanford.edu/~jlm/pdfs/Newcombe98Proportions.pdf

G. Noether, Sample Size Determination for Some Common Nonparametric Tests, Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol.82, issue.398, pp.645-652, 1987.
DOI : 10.1080/01621459.1987.10478478

E. Walker and A. Nowacki, Understanding Equivalence and Noninferiority Testing, Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol.295, issue.2, pp.192-198, 2011.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.295.10.1152

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3019319?pdf=render