Population Pharmacokinetics of Posaconazole Tablets and Monte Carlo Simulations To Determine whether All Patients Should Receive the Same Dose

Abstract : Posaconazole is extensively used for prophylaxis for invasive fungal infections. The gastro-resistant tablet formulation has allowed the bioavailability issues encountered with the oral suspension to be overcome. However, overexposure is now frequent. This study aimed to (i) describe the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole tablets in a real-life cohort of patients with hematological malignancies and (ii) perform Monte Carlo simulations to assess the possibility that the daily dose can be reduced while keeping a sufficient exposure. Forty-nine consecutive inpatients were prospectively included in the study. Posaconazole trough concentrations (TC) were measured once a week, and biological and demographic data were collected. The concentrations were analyzed by compartmental modeling, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed using estimated parameters to assess the rate of attainment of the target TC after dose reduction. The pharmacokinetics of posaconazole were well described using a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The values of the parameters (interindividual variabilities) were as follows: the absorption constant (k(a)) was 0.588 h(-1) (fixed), the volume of distribution (V/F) was 420 liters (28.2%), and clearance (CL/F) was 7.3 liters/h (24.2%) with 31.9% interoccasion variability. Forty-nine percent of the simulated patients had TC at steady state of >= 1.5 mu g/ml and maintained a TC above 1 mu g/ml after a reduction of the dose to 200 mg daily. A third of these patients eligible for a dose reduction had TC of >= 1.5 mu g/ml as soon as 48 h of treatment. Though posaconazole tablets were less impacted by bioavailability issues than the oral suspension, the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole tablets remain highly variable. Simulations showed that approximately half of the patients would benefit from a reduction of the dose from 300 mg to 200 mg while keeping the TC above the minimal recommended target of 0.7 mu g/ml, resulting in a 33% savings in the cost of this very expensive drug.
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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, American Society for Microbiology, 2017, 61 (11), pp.e01166-17 〈10.1128/AAC.01166-17〉
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Antoine Petitcollin, C. Boglione-Kerrien, C. Tron, S. Nimubona, S. Lalanne, et al.. Population Pharmacokinetics of Posaconazole Tablets and Monte Carlo Simulations To Determine whether All Patients Should Receive the Same Dose. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, American Society for Microbiology, 2017, 61 (11), pp.e01166-17 〈10.1128/AAC.01166-17〉. 〈hal-01631527〉

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