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F. Gruber, B. Hegselmann, T. Messerer, and . Müllner, Carnuntum region for allowing us to run this study in their vineyards Yoko Muraoka and Norbert Schuller for assistance during field sampling Georg Iwanov and three anonymous reviewers helped to improve the text. This work is part of the project VineDivers (www.vinedivers.eu) funded through the 2013?2014 BiodivERsA/FACCE JPI joint call with the national funders Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Acknowledgements We are grateful to Johann Grassl and to the winegrowers in the Leithaberg and Agence Nationale de la Recherche Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding Ministerio des economía y competitividad (MINECO, Spain) and FWF-Der Wissenschaftsfonds (Austria)

A. Contributions, S. W. , P. S. , J. G. , D. C. et al., identified Collembola samples did the landscape mapping and analysis; T.B. and P.S. did the soil analyses, and J.G.Z. wrote and reviewed the manuscript