F. Adriaensen, J. P. Chardon, G. De-blust, E. Swinnen, S. Villalba et al., The application of ???least-cost??? modelling as a functional landscape model, Landscape and Urban Planning, vol.64, issue.4, pp.233-247, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-2046(02)00242-6

S. Angelone, F. Kienast, and R. Holderegger, Where movement happens: scale-dependent landscape effects on genetic differentiation in the European tree frog, Ecography, vol.28, issue.5, pp.714-722, 2011.
DOI : 10.2307/2408641

A. Ansart, L. Madec, and A. Guiller, Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Retrieved, 2009.

J. F. Arnaud, Metapopulation genetic structure and migration pathways in the land snail Helix aspersa: influence of landscape heterogeneity, Landscape Ecology, vol.18, issue.3, pp.333-346, 2003.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1024409116214

, doi:10, p.1024409116214, 1023.

J. F. Arnaud, L. Madec, A. Bellido, and A. Guiller, Microspatial genetic structure in the land snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda: Helicidae), Heredity, vol.38, issue.2, pp.110-119, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/bijl.1996.0089

J. F. Arnaud, L. Madec, A. Guiller, and J. Deunff, Population genetic structure in a human-disturbed environment: a case study in the land snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda: Pulmonata), Heredity, vol.38, issue.6, pp.451-458, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-012323445-2/50005-5

S. Aubry, C. Labaune, F. Magnin, P. Roche, and L. Kiss, Active and passive dispersal of an invading land snail in Mediterranean France, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.24, issue.3, pp.802-813, 2006.
DOI : 10.1071/ZO9690495

M. Baguette, S. Blanchet, D. Legrand, V. M. Stevens, and C. Turlure, Individual dispersal, landscape connectivity and ecological networks, Biological Reviews, vol.12, issue.2, pp.310-326, 2013.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01773.x

, Accepted Article . doi:10.1111/brv, p.12000

M. Baguette and H. Van-dyck, Landscape connectivity and animal behavior: functional grain as a key determinant for dispersal, Landscape Ecology, vol.80, issue.8, pp.1117-1129, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-012323445-2/50017-1

N. Balkenhol and L. P. Waits, Molecular road ecology: exploring the potential of genetics for investigating transportation impacts on wildlife, Molecular Ecology, vol.53, issue.20, pp.4151-4164, 2009.
DOI : 10.1163/156854201750210869

D. Barbato, A. Benocci, T. Caruso, and G. Manganelli, The role of dispersal and local environment in urban land snail assemblages: an example of three cities in Central Italy, Urban Ecosystems, vol.745, issue.1, pp.1-13, 2017.
DOI : 10.1007/s10750-014-2104-1

K. Barto?, MuMIn: Multi-Model Inference (Version 1.15.6) Retrieved from https, 2016.

D. Bates, M. Mächler, B. Bolker, and S. Walker, Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. ArXiv:1406, 2014.

A. Baur and B. Baur, ?, Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.68, issue.3, pp.613-617, 1990.
DOI : 10.1139/z90-091

J. Beninde, S. Feldmeier, M. Werner, D. Peroverde, U. Schulte et al., , 2016.

, Cityscape genetics: structural vs. functional connectivity of an urban lizard population, Molecular Ecology, vol.25, issue.20

A. J. Bohonak, Dispersal, Gene Flow, and Population Structure, The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol.74, issue.1, pp.21-45, 1999.
DOI : 10.1086/392950

B. M. Bolker, M. E. Brooks, C. J. Clark, S. W. Geange, J. R. Poulsen et al.,

S. , Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.24, issue.3, pp.127-135, 2009.

H. Boussard and J. Baudry, Chloe212 : a software for landscape pattern analysis. Retrieved from http://www.rennes.inra.fr/sad/Outils-Produits/Outils-informatiques, 2014.

S. Braaker, J. Ghazoul, M. K. Obrist, and M. Moretti, Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs, Ecology, vol.95, issue.4, pp.1010-1021, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2010.01675.x

S. Braaker, U. Kormann, F. Bontadina, and M. K. Obrist, Prediction of genetic connectivity in urban ecosystems by combining detailed movement data, genetic data and multi-path modelling, Landscape and Urban Planning, vol.160, pp.107-114, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.12.011

S. Braaker, M. Moretti, R. Boesch, J. Ghazoul, M. K. Obrist et al., Assessing habitat connectivity for ground-dwelling animals in an urban environment, Ecological Applications, vol.24, issue.7, pp.1583-1595, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00078.x

T. Broquet and E. J. Petit, Molecular Estimation of Dispersal for Ecology and Population Genetics, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol.40, issue.1, pp.193-216, 2009.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120324

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00448683

K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/b97636

M. L. Cadenasso, S. T. Pickett, and K. Schwarz, Spatial heterogeneity in urban ecosystems: reconceptualizing land cover and a framework for classification, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol.5, issue.2, pp.80-8810, 2007.
DOI : 10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[80:SHIUER]2.0.CO;2

J. A. Castillo, C. W. Epps, M. R. Jeffress, C. Ray, T. J. Rodhouse et al., Replicated landscape genetic and network analyses reveal wide variation in functional connectivity for American pikas, Ecological Applications, vol.16, issue.6, pp.1660-1676, 2016.
DOI : 10.1080/14888386.2015.1112304

M. Chapuis and A. Estoup, Microsatellite Null Alleles and Estimation of Population Differentiation, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.14, issue.3, pp.621-631, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025835

J. P. Chardon, F. Adriaensen, and E. Matthysen, Incorporating landscape elements into a connectivity measure: a case study for the Speckled wood butterfly, 2003.

, Landscape Ecology, vol.18, issue.6, pp.561-573

A. Article,

R. T. Clarke, P. Rothery, and A. F. Raybould, Confidence limits for regression relationships between distance matrices: Estimating gene flow with distance, Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, vol.28, issue.3, p.36110, 1198.
DOI : 10.1214/aoms/1177706647

E. D. Concepción, M. Moretti, F. Altermatt, M. P. Nobis, and M. K. Obrist, Impacts of urbanisation on biodiversity: the role of species mobility, degree of specialisation and spatial scale, Oikos, vol.11, issue.12, pp.1571-1582, 2015.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1016223907962

A. Coulon, J. F. Cosson, J. M. Angibault, B. Cargnelutti, M. Galan et al., Landscape connectivity influences gene flow in a roe deer population inhabiting a fragmented landscape: an individual-based approach, Molecular Ecology, vol.28, issue.3, pp.2841-2850, 2004.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2540.1999.00496.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01346116

M. Dahirel, A. Séguret, A. Ansart, and L. Madec, Dispersal-related traits of the snail Cornu aspersum along an urbanisation gradient: maintenance of mobility across life stages despite high costs, Urban Ecosystems, vol.93, issue.4, pp.1847-1859, 2016.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.01039.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01436550

M. Dahirel, M. Vardakis, A. Ansart, and L. Madec, Density-dependence across dispersal stages in a hermaphrodite land snail: insights from discrete choice models, Oecologia, vol.6, issue.95, pp.1117-1128, 2016.
DOI : 10.1111/2041-210X.12404

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01328965

N. Dan, Studies on the growth and ecology of Helix aspersa Müller, 1978.

E. S. Davis, T. E. Murray, Ú. Fitzpatrick, M. J. Brown, and R. J. Paxton, Landscape effects on extremely fragmented populations of a rare solitary bee, Colletes floralis, Molecular Ecology, vol.2, issue.22, pp.4922-4935, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01418.x

K. S. Delaney, S. P. Riley, and R. N. Fisher, A Rapid, Strong, and Convergent Genetic Response to Urban Habitat Fragmentation in Four Divergent and Widespread Vertebrates, PLoS ONE, vol.2, issue.9, 2010.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0012767.s006

, PLOS ONE, vol.5, issue.9

M. Denny, Locomotion: The Cost of Gastropod Crawling, Science, vol.208, issue.4449, pp.1288-1290, 1980.
DOI : 10.1126/science.208.4449.1288

A. Article,

M. F. Dileo and H. H. Wagner, A Landscape Ecologist???s Agenda for Landscape Genetics, Current Landscape Ecology Reports, vol.295, issue.1, pp.115-126, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.08.018

M. Dionne, F. Caron, J. J. Dodson, and L. Bernatchez, Landscape genetics and hierarchical genetic structure in Atlantic salmon: the interaction of gene flow and local adaptation, Molecular Ecology, vol.28, issue.10, pp.2382-2396, 2008.
DOI : 10.2307/2408641

K. Driezen, F. Adriaensen, C. Rondinini, C. P. Doncaster, and E. Matthysen, Evaluating leastcost model predictions with empirical dispersal data: A case-study using radiotracking data of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), Ecological Modelling, vol.209, pp.2-4, 2007.

R. Y. Dudaniec, J. R. Rhodes, W. Wilmer, J. Lyons, M. Lee et al., Using multilevel models to identify drivers of landscape-genetic structure among management areas, Molecular Ecology, vol.18, issue.14, pp.22-3752, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04305.x

L. Dupont, M. Torres-leguizamon, P. René-corail, and J. Mathieu, Landscape features impact connectivity between soil populations: a comparative study of gene flow in earthworms, Molecular Ecology, vol.1, issue.12, pp.3128-3140, 2017.
DOI : 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00001.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02151084

C. W. Epps and N. Keyghobadi, Landscape genetics in a changing world: disentangling historical and contemporary influences and inferring change, Molecular Ecology, vol.15, issue.24, pp.6021-6040, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s10592-013-0519-2

G. Falkner, P. Obrdlík, E. Castella, and C. C. Speight, Shelled gastropoda of western Europe, 2001.

L. E. Fenderson, A. I. Kovach, J. A. Litvaitis, K. M. O-'brien, K. M. Boland et al., A multiscale analysis of gene flow for the New England cottontail, an imperiled habitat specialist in a fragmented landscape, Ecology and Evolution, vol.15, issue.10, pp.1853-1875, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02929.x

E. Fernández-juricic, Avifaunal Use of Wooded Streets in an Urban Landscape, Conservation Biology, vol.2, issue.2, pp.513-521, 2000.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511608568

J. Foltête, C. Clauzel, and G. Vuidel, A software tool dedicated to the modelling of landscape networks, Environmental Modelling & Software, vol.38, pp.316-327, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.07.002

R. T. Forman, Road Ecology: Science and Solutions, 2003.

R. T. Forman, Urban Ecology: Science of Cities, 2014.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9781139030472

W. Forstmeier, E. Wagenmakers, and T. H. Parker, Detecting and avoiding likely false-positive findings??-??a practical guide, Biological Reviews, vol.75, issue.4, pp.1941-1968, 2017.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2006.01141.x

O. E. Gaggiotti and M. Foll, Quantifying population structure using the F-model, Molecular Ecology Resources, vol.15, issue.5, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-1809.1949.tb02451.x

T. Garrido-garduño, O. Téllez-valdés, S. Manel, and E. Vázquez-domínguez, Role of habitat heterogeneity and landscape connectivity in shaping gene flow and spatial population structure of a dominant rodent species in a tropical dry forest, Journal of Zoology, vol.27, issue.4, pp.293-302, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/s10980-012-9737-0

J. Goudet, FSTAT, a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices, 2001.

J. Goudet, hierfstat, a package for r to compute and test hierarchical F-statistics, Molecular Ecology Notes, vol.52, issue.3, pp.184-186, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-1809.1949.tb02451.x

J. Goudet and T. Jombart, hierfstat: Estimation and Tests of Hierarchical F-Statistics (Version 0.04-22) Retrieved from https, 2015.

N. B. Grimm, S. H. Faeth, N. E. Golubiewski, C. L. Redman, J. Wu et al., J. M, 2008.

, Global change and the ecology of cities, Science, issue.5864, pp.319-756

P. M. Groffman, M. Avolio, J. Cavender-bares, N. D. Bettez, J. M. Grove et al., Ecological homogenization of residential macrosystems, Nature Ecology & Evolution, vol.1, issue.7, pp.41559-41576, 2017.
DOI : 10.1038/s41559-017-0123

A. Guiller, J. Arnaud, D. Vautrin, and M. Solignac, Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in the landsnail Helix aspersa (Mollusca Gastropoda), Molecular Ecology, vol.9, issue.8, 2000.

B. K. Hand, C. C. Muhlfeld, A. A. Wade, R. P. Kovach, D. C. Whited et al., Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: the importance of replication in landscape genetics, Molecular Ecology, vol.28, issue.3, pp.689-705, 2016.
DOI : 10.1890/14-1630.1

R. Holderegger and M. Di-giulio, The genetic effects of roads: A review of empirical evidence, Basic and Applied Ecology, vol.11, issue.6, pp.522-531, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.baae.2010.06.006

R. Holderegger and H. H. Wagner, Landscape Genetics. BioScience, vol.58, issue.3, pp.199-207, 2008.

K. E. Holsinger and B. S. Weir, Genetics in geographically structured populations: defining, estimating and interpreting FST, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.97, issue.9, pp.639-650, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003884

R. Jaffé, N. Pope, A. L. Acosta, D. A. Alves, M. C. Arias et al., , 2016.

, Beekeeping practices and geographic distance, not land use, drive gene flow across tropical bees, Molecular Ecology, vol.25, issue.21, pp.5345-5358

J. Jaquiéry, T. Broquet, A. H. Hirzel, J. Yearsley, and N. Perrin, Inferring landscape effects on dispersal from genetic distances: how far can we go? Molecular Ecology, pp.692-705, 2011.

J. B. Johnson and K. S. Omland, Model selection in ecology and evolution, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.19, issue.2, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2003.10.013

M. T. Johnson and J. Munshi-south, Evolution of life in urban environments, Science, vol.301, issue.6363, 2017.
DOI : 10.1111/jzo.12399

D. Keller, R. Holderegger, and M. J. Van-strien, Spatial scale affects landscape genetic analysis of a wetland grasshopper, Molecular Ecology, vol.17, issue.9, pp.2467-2482, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03861.x

M. Kerney, R. Cameron, and A. Bertrand, , 2006.

. Paris,

N. Keyghobadi, The genetic implications of habitat fragmentation for animalsThis review is one of a series dealing with some aspects of the impact of habitat fragmentation on animals and plants. This series is one of several virtual symposia focussing on ecological topics that will be published in the Journal from time to time., Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.48, issue.10, pp.1049-1064, 2007.
DOI : 10.1023/B:COGE.0000041029.38961.a0

L. Point, S. Balkenhol, N. Hale, J. Sadler, J. Van-der-ree et al., Ecological connectivity research in urban areas, Functional Ecology, vol.29, issue.7, pp.868-878, 2015.

L. Point, S. Gallery, P. Wikelski, M. Kays, and R. , Animal behavior, cost-based corridor models, and real corridors, Landscape Ecology, vol.28, issue.8, pp.1615-1630, 2013.

J. S. Lee, E. W. Ruell, E. E. Boydston, L. M. Lyren, R. S. Alonso et al., ) in a fragmented urban landscape, Molecular Ecology, vol.97, issue.7, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800865

L. Madec, Etude de la différenciation de quelques populations géographiquement séparées de l'espèce Helix Aspersa Müller(mollusque gastéropode pulmone): aspects morphologiques, écophysiologiques et biochimiques. University of Rennes I. Retrieved from http, 1989.

S. Manel and R. Holderegger, Ten years of landscape genetics, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.28, issue.10, pp.614-621, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2013.05.012

S. Manel, M. K. Schwartz, G. Luikart, and P. Taberlet, Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.18, issue.4, pp.189-197, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-5347(03)00008-9

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00279786

K. Mcgarigal, S. Cushman, M. Neel, and E. Ene, FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps. Retrieved from http, 2002.

M. L. Mckinney, Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization, Biological Conservation, vol.127, issue.3, pp.247-260, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.005

A. Article,

B. H. Mcrae, Isolation by Resistance, Evolution, vol.60, issue.8, 2006.

B. H. Mcrae, B. G. Dickson, T. H. Keitt, and V. B. Shah, USING CIRCUIT THEORY TO MODEL CONNECTIVITY IN ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, AND CONSERVATION, Ecology, vol.1, issue.10, pp.89-2712, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00131172

K. A. Medley, D. G. Jenkins, and E. A. Hoffman, Human-aided and natural dispersal drive gene flow across the range of an invasive mosquito, Molecular Ecology, vol.18, issue.2, pp.284-295, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04131.x

K. L. Millette and N. Keyghobadi, The relative influence of habitat amount and configuration on genetic structure across multiple spatial scales, Ecology and Evolution, vol.15, issue.1, pp.73-86, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-1809.1949.tb02451.x

J. Munshi-south, ) populations in New York City, Molecular Ecology, vol.18, issue.Pt 2, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04305.x

J. Munshi-south and K. Kharchenko, Rapid, pervasive genetic differentiation of urban white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City, Molecular Ecology, vol.18, issue.19, pp.4242-4254, 2010.
DOI : 10.5962/bhl.title.39510

J. Munshi-south, C. P. Zolnik, and S. E. Harris, Population genomics of the Anthropocene: urbanization is negatively associated with genome-wide variation in white-footed mouse populations, Evolutionary Applications, vol.15, issue.March, pp.546-564, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/s11252-012-0238-3

M. A. Murphy, R. Dezzani, D. S. Pilliod, and A. Storfer, Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations, Molecular Ecology, vol.164, issue.17, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x

M. A. Murphy, J. S. Evans, and A. Storfer, Quantifying Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park with landscape genetics, Ecology, vol.15, issue.1, pp.252-261, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/esp.3290120107

E. Öckinger, O. Schweiger, T. O. Crist, D. M. Debinski, J. Krauss et al., , 2010.

A. Article,

, Life-history traits predict species responses to habitat area and isolation: a cross-continental synthesis, Ecology Letters, vol.13, issue.8, pp.969-979

K. M. Parris, Ecology of Urban Environments, 2016.

W. E. Peterman, G. M. Connette, R. D. Semlitsch, and L. S. Eggert, Ecological resistance surfaces predict fine-scale genetic differentiation in a terrestrial woodland salamander, Molecular Ecology, vol.4, issue.10, pp.2402-2413, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/2041-210x.12004

F. J. Pflüger and N. Balkenhol, A plea for simultaneously considering matrix quality and local environmental conditions when analysing landscape impacts on effective dispersal, Molecular Ecology, vol.27, issue.9, pp.2146-2156, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s10980-012-9737-0

E. Piano, K. De-wolf, F. Bona, D. Bonte, D. E. Bowler et al., , 2017.

, Urbanization drives community shifts towards thermophilic and dispersive species at local and landscape scales, Global Change Biology, vol.23, issue.7, pp.2554-2564

J. Pinheiro, D. Bates, S. Debroy, D. Sarkar, and . Team, nlme: Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models (Version 3.1-128) Retrieved from https, 2016.

J. G. Prunier, V. Dubut, L. Chikhi, and S. Blanchet, Isolation-by-Drift: Quantifying the Respective Contributions of Genetic Drift and Gene Flow in Shaping Spatial Patterns of Genetic Differentiation, 2015.

J. G. Prunier, B. Kaufmann, J. Lena, S. Fenet, F. Pompanon et al., A 40-year-old divided highway does not prevent gene flow in the alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris, Conservation Genetics, vol.141, issue.11, pp.453-468, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biocon.2008.08.010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00968131

R. Core-team, R: A language and environment for statistical computing (Version 3.2). Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2015.

C. E. Ramalho and R. J. Hobbs, Time for a change: dynamic urban ecology, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.27, issue.3, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2011.10.008

B. Rayfield, M. Fortin, and A. Fall, The sensitivity of least-cost habitat graphs to relative cost surface values, Landscape Ecology, vol.80, issue.4, pp.519-532, 2010.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511754821.019

O. Razgour, H. Rebelo, S. J. Puechmaille, J. Juste, C. Ibáñez et al., , 2014.

, Scale-dependent effects of landscape variables on gene flow and population structure in bats, Diversity and Distributions, vol.20, issue.10

J. L. Richardson, S. P. Brady, I. J. Wang, and S. F. Spear, Navigating the pitfalls and promise of landscape genetics, Molecular Ecology, vol.27, issue.4, pp.849-863, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/s10980-012-9737-0

Z. M. Rosin, A. Lesicki, Z. Kwieci?ski, P. Skórka, and P. Tryjanowski, Land snails benefit from human alterations in rural landscapes and habitats, Ecosphere, vol.1, issue.7, pp.10-1002, 2017.
DOI : 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00001.x

F. Rousset, Genetic Differentiation and Estimation of Gene Flow from F-Statistics Under Isolation by Distance, Genetics, vol.145, issue.4, pp.1219-1228, 1997.

J. R. Row, S. T. Knick, S. J. Oyler-mccance, S. C. Lougheed, and B. C. Fedy, Developing approaches for linear mixed modeling in landscape genetics through landscape-directed dispersal simulations, Ecology and Evolution, vol.23, issue.11, pp.3751-3761, 2017.
DOI : 10.1111/mec.12921

A. Ruiz-gonzález, M. Gurrutxaga, S. A. Cushman, M. J. Madeira, E. Randi et al., Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network, PLoS ONE, vol.27, issue.10, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0110552.s008

G. Segelbacher, S. A. Cushman, B. K. Epperson, M. Fortin, O. Francois et al., Applications of landscape genetics in conservation biology: concepts and challenges, Conservation Genetics, vol.28, issue.2, pp.375-385, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2001.tb00689.x

R. K. Selander and D. W. Kaufman, Genetic Structure of Populations of the Brown Snail (Helix aspersa). I. Microgeographic Variation, Evolution, vol.29, issue.3, pp.385-401, 1975.

S. Bull, R. A. Cushman, S. A. Mace, R. Chilton, T. Kendall et al., Why replication is important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains, Molecular Ecology, vol.27, issue.6, pp.1092-1107, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.003

A. Article,

A. Storfer, M. A. Murphy, S. F. Spear, R. Holderegger, and L. P. Waits, Landscape genetics: where are we now?, Molecular Ecology, vol.15, issue.17, pp.3496-3514, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00204.x

P. D. Taylor, L. Fahrig, K. Henein, and G. Merriam, Connectivity Is a Vital Element of Landscape Structure, Oikos, vol.68, issue.3, pp.571-573, 1993.
DOI : 10.2307/3544927

P. D. Taylor, L. Fahrig, and K. A. With, Landscape connectivity: a return to the basics, Connectivity conservation, pp.29-43, 2006.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511754821.003

A. M. Trainor, J. R. Walters, W. F. Morris, J. Sexton, and A. Moody, Empirical estimation of dispersal resistance surfaces: a case study with red-cockaded woodpeckers, Landscape Ecology, vol.27, issue.4, pp.755-767, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s10980-012-9737-0

, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, 2015.

J. Van-etten, : Distances and Routes on Geographical Grids, Journal of Statistical Software, vol.76, issue.13, 2017.
DOI : 10.18637/jss.v076.i13

M. J. Van-strien, D. Keller, and R. Holderegger, A new analytical approach to landscape genetic modelling: least-cost transect analysis and linear mixed models, Molecular Ecology, vol.58, issue.16, pp.4010-4023, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb00466.x

A. Villemey, W. E. Peterman, M. Richard, A. Ouin, I. Halder et al., Butterfly dispersal in farmland: a replicated landscape genetics study on the meadow brown butterfly (Maniola jurtina), Landscape Ecology, vol.27, issue.6, pp.31-1629, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/s10980-012-9737-0

H. H. Wagner and M. Fortin, A conceptual framework for the spatial analysis of landscape genetic data, Conservation Genetics, vol.2, issue.2, pp.253-261, 2013.
DOI : 10.2307/2405519

L. P. Waits, S. A. Cushman, and S. F. Spear, Applications of Landscape Genetics to Connectivity Research in Terrestrial Animals, Landscape Genetics: Concepts, Methods, Applications, pp.199-219, 2016.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04305.x

P. C. Watts, J. R. Rouquette, I. J. Saccheri, S. J. Kemp, and D. J. Thompson, Molecular and ecological evidence for small-scale isolation by distance in an endangered damselfly, Coenagrion mercuriale, Molecular Ecology, vol.15, issue.10, pp.2931-2945, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-1809.1949.tb02451.x

J. A. Wiens, Spatial Scaling in Ecology, Functional Ecology, vol.3, issue.4, pp.385-397, 1989.
DOI : 10.2307/2389612

W. Wilmer, J. Elkin, C. Wilcox, C. Murray, L. Niejalke et al., The influence of multiple dispersal mechanisms and landscape structure on population clustering and connectivity in fragmented artesian spring snail populations, Molecular Ecology, vol.58, issue.16, pp.3733-3751, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb00466.x

K. A. Zeller, K. Mcgarigal, and A. R. Whiteley, Estimating landscape resistance to movement: a review, Landscape Ecology, vol.13, issue.6, pp.777-797, 2012.
DOI : 10.2981/0909-6396(2007)13[406:PDAPSO]2.0.CO;2

, Data accessibility The datasets with C.aspersum microsatellite genotypes are available from the Dryad Digital Repository

E. J. , A. E. , L. M. , A. E. , P. P. et al., P. performed molecular analyses, J.N. and V.B. provided maps. M.B. and P.P. conducted connectivity and landscape genetics analyses. M.B