Simplification of first-line antibacterial regimen for complicated appendicitis in children was associated with better adherence to guidelines, and reduced use of antibiotics

Abstract : Acute appendicitis in children requires early surgery and short-course antibiotics active against Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes. Although an aminoglycoside-containing three-drug regimen has been used successfully for decades, simpler regimens with similar efficacy are increasingly used. This study evaluated the impact of a switch from the combination of cefotaxime, metronidazole and gentamicin (regimen 1) to piperacillin/tazobactam (regimen 2) as first-line regimen for complicated acute appendicitis in children. In total, 171 children were enrolled [median (IQR) age, 10 (6-13) years], treated with regimen 1 (n = 80) or regimen 2 (n = 91) following surgery for complicated acute appendicitis. The two groups were comparable except for surgical approach (through laparoscopy in 46% vs. 88% for regimens 1 and 2, respectively; P < 0.001). Post-operative complications and duration of hospital stay were similar. Deviations from antibacterial treatment protocol decreased from 36% (29/80) to 14% (13/91) (P < 0.001), with a dramatic reduction in antibacterial treatment duration from median (IQR) of 15 (12-16) days to 5 (5-8) days (P < 0.001). Post-operative intra-abdominal abscess developed in 32 children (18.7%). Female sex (OR = 2.76, 95% CI 1.18-6.48; P = 0.02) and sepsis/septic shock on admission (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 1.12-19.97; P = 0.035) were independently associated with post-operative intra-abdominal abscess, but not antibacterial regimen. This study shows that simplification of first-line antibacterial regimen for complicated appendicitis in children was associated with reduced protocol deviation, reduced duration of antibiotics, and similar outcomes (post-operative complications and duration of hospital stay).
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Marion Taleb, Nicolas Nardi, Alexis Arnaud, Nathalie Costet, Pierre-Yves Donnio, et al.. Simplification of first-line antibacterial regimen for complicated appendicitis in children was associated with better adherence to guidelines, and reduced use of antibiotics. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Elsevier, 2018, 52 (2), pp.293-296. ⟨10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.04.010⟩. ⟨hal-01807363⟩

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