R. D. Truog, M. L. Campbell, and J. R. Curtis, Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: a consensus statement by the American College [corrected] of Critical Care Medicine, Crit Care Med, vol.36, issue.3, pp.953-963, 2008.

, End-of-life care in the intensive care unit. Recommendations of the Société de Réanimation de Langue Française, Rev Mal Respir, vol.20, issue.6, pp.981-988, 2003.

, Relative Aux Droits Des Malades et à La Fin de Vie, 2005.

E. Ferrand, R. Robert, P. Ingrand, F. Lemaire, L. French et al., Withholding and withdrawal of life support in intensive-care units in France: a prospective survey, French LATAREA Group. Lancet, vol.357, issue.9249, pp.9-14, 2001.

A. Esteban, F. Gordo, and J. F. Solsona, Withdrawing and withholding life support in the intensive care unit: a Spanish prospective multi-centre observational study, Intensive Care Med, vol.27, issue.11, pp.1744-1749, 2001.

O. Lesieur, M. Leloup, F. Gonzalez, and M. Mamzer, Withholding or withdrawal of treatment under French rules: a study performed in 43 intensive care units, Ann Intensive Care, vol.5, issue.1, p.56, 2015.

J. Orban, Y. Walrave, and N. Mongardon, Causes and Characteristics of Death in Intensive Care Units: A Prospective Multicenter Study, Anesthesiology, vol.126, issue.5, pp.882-889, 2017.

E. Azoulay, B. Metnitz, and C. L. Sprung, End-of-life practices in 282 intensive care units: data from the SAPS 3 database, Intensive Care Med, vol.35, issue.4, pp.623-630, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00335308

C. L. Sprung, S. L. Cohen, and P. Sjokvist, End-of-life practices in European intensive care units: the Ethicus Study, JAMA J Am Med Assoc, vol.290, issue.6, pp.790-797, 2003.

L. Gall, J. R. Lemeshow, S. Saulnier, and F. , A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study, JAMA J Am Med Assoc, vol.270, issue.24, pp.2957-2963, 1993.

J. L. Vincent, A. De-mendonça, and F. Cantraine, Use of the SOFA score to assess the incidence of organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care units: results of a multicenter, prospective study. Working group on "sepsis-related problems" of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Crit Care Med, vol.26, issue.11, pp.1793-1800, 1998.

W. R. Mccabe and G. Jackson, Gram-negative bacteremia: I. etiology and ecology, Arch Intern Med, vol.110, issue.6, pp.847-855, 1962.

A. Boumendil, M. E. , R. I. Luquel, L. Offenstadt, G. Guidet et al., Prognosis of patients aged 80 years and over admitted in medical intensive care unit, Intensive Care Med, vol.30, issue.4, pp.647-654, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s00134-003-2150-z

, Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.152, issue.5, pp.77-121, 1995.

A. Lautrette, M. Garrouste-orgeas, and P. Bertrand, Respective impact of no escalation of treatment, withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment on ICU patients' prognosis: a multicenter study of the Outcomerea Research Group, Intensive Care Med, vol.41, issue.10, pp.1763-1772, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01393958

C. M. Chu, V. L. Chan, A. Lin, I. Wong, W. S. Leung et al., Readmission rates and life threatening events in COPD survivors treated with non-invasive ventilation for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, Thorax, vol.59, issue.12, pp.1020-1025, 2004.

C. Fuhrman, E. Jougla, J. Nicolau, D. Eilstein, and M. Delmas, Deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in France, 1979-2002: a multiple cause analysis, Thorax, vol.61, issue.11, pp.930-934, 2006.

C. E. Rycroft, A. Heyes, L. Lanza, and K. Becker, Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a literature review, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol.7, pp.457-494, 2012.

P. K. Plant, J. L. Owen, S. Parrott, and M. W. Elliott, Cost effectiveness of ward based noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: economic analysis of randomised controlled trial, BMJ, vol.326, issue.7396, p.956, 2003.

T. Köhnlein, W. Windisch, and D. Köhler, Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for the treatment of severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial, Lancet Respir Med, 2014.

D. Annane, D. Orlikowski, S. Chevret, J. C. Chevrolet, and J. C. Raphaël, Nocturnal mechanical ventilation for chronic hypoventilation in patients with neuromuscular and chest wall disorders, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, issue.4, p.1941, 2007.

K. L. Ankjaergaard, S. L. Maibom, and J. T. Wilcke, Long-term non-invasive ventilation reduces readmissions in COPD patients with two or more episodes of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, Eur Clin Respir J, vol.3, p.28303, 2016.

P. B. Murphy, S. Rehal, and G. Arbane, Effect of Home Noninvasive Ventilation With Oxygen Therapy vs Oxygen Therapy Alone on Hospital Readmission or Death After an Acute COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA, vol.317, issue.21, pp.2177-2186, 2017.

E. Azoulay, A. Kouatchet, and S. Jaber, Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients having declined tracheal intubation, Intensive Care Med, vol.39, issue.2, pp.292-301, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00794773

A. Gacouin, S. Jouneau, and J. Letheulle, Trends in Prevalence and Prognosis in Subjects With Acute Chronic Respiratory Failure Treated With Noninvasive and/or Invasive Ventilation, Respir Care, vol.60, issue.2, pp.210-218, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01117964

A. Gacouin, G. Leveiller, and T. Guy, Long term survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after ventilation in intensive care, Rev Mal Respir, vol.26, issue.3, pp.257-265, 2009.

, Good care of the dying patient. Council on Scientific Affairs, JAMA, vol.275, issue.6, pp.474-478, 1996.

P. A. Singer and F. H. Lowy, Rationing, patient preferences, and cost of care at the end of life, Arch Intern Med, vol.152, issue.3, pp.478-480, 1992.

D. Edmondson, P. Green, S. Ye, H. J. Halazun, and K. W. Davidson, Psychological stress and 30day all-cause hospital readmission in acute coronary syndrome patients: an observational cohort study, PloS One, vol.9, issue.3, p.91477, 2014.

D. C. Angus and J. Carlet, Surviving intensive care: a report from the 2002 Brussels Roundtable, Intensive Care Med, vol.29, issue.3, pp.368-377, 2002.

N. Nesseler, A. Defontaine, Y. Launey, J. Morcet, Y. Mallédant et al., Long-term mortality and quality of life after septic shock: a follow-up observational study, Intensive Care Med, vol.39, issue.5, pp.881-888, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00809018