F. R. Adler and M. Kotar, Departure time versus departure rate: How to forage optimally when you are stupid, Evolutionary Ecology Research, vol.1, pp.411-421, 1999.

T. O. Andrade, M. Hervé, Y. Outreman, L. Krespi, and . Van-baaren, Winter host exploitation influences fitness traits in a parasitoid, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol.98, issue.2, pp.167-174, 2013.
DOI : 10.1017/S000748530800566X

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00826861

J. E. Banks and V. Gagic, Aphid parasitoids respond to vegetation heterogeneity but not to fragmentation scale: An experimental field study, Basic and Applied Ecology, vol.17, issue.5, pp.438-446, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.baae.2016.01.007

M. Ben-ari, M. Gish, and M. Inbar, Walking aphids can partake in within-field dispersal to distant plants, Basic and Applied Ecology, vol.16, issue.2, pp.162-171, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.baae.2014.11.007

B. Baillod, A. Tscharntke, T. Clough, Y. Batáry, and P. , Landscape-scale interactions of spatial and temporal cropland heterogeneity drive biological control of cereal aphids, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.14, issue.6, pp.1804-1813, 2017.
DOI : 10.1007/978-0-387-87458-6

G. Broström, R Package. glmmML: Generalized linear models with clustering, 2013.

V. Calcagno, L. Mailleret, E. Wajnberg, and F. Grognard, How optimal foragers should respond to habitat changes: a reanalysis of the Marginal Value Theorem, Journal of Mathematical Biology, vol.7, issue.3, pp.1237-1265, 2014.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1420-9101.1994.7030339.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00871355

R. J. Chambers, K. D. Sunderland, D. L. Stacey, and I. J. Wyatt, Control of cereal aphids in winter wheat by natural enemies: aphid-specific predators, parasitoids and pathogenic fungi, Annals of Applied Biology, vol.6, issue.2, pp.219-231, 1986.
DOI : 10.1093/aesa/65.3.650

E. L. Charnov, Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem, Theoretical Population Biology, vol.9, issue.2, pp.129-136, 1976.
DOI : 10.1016/0040-5809(76)90040-X

T. S. Collett and M. Collett, Memory use in insect visual navigation, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.171, issue.7, pp.542-552, 2002.
DOI : 10.1126/science.171.3967.203

M. Collett, Spatial memories in insects, Current Biology, vol.19, issue.24, pp.1103-1108, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.004

J. C. Corley, J. M. Villacide, and S. Van-nouhuys, Patch Time Allocation by a Parasitoid: The Influence of Con-specifics, Host Abundance and Distance to the Patch, Journal of Insect Behavior, vol.7, issue.4, pp.431-440, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1977.tb00885.x

D. R. Cox, Regression Models and Life-Tables, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, vol.34, pp.187-220, 1972.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4612-4380-9_37

R. Dukas, Evolutionary Biology of Insect Learning, Annual Review of Entomology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.145-160, 2008.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ento.53.103106.093343

D. Fischbein, J. Bettinelli, C. Bernstein, and J. C. Corley, Patch choice from a distance and use of habitat information during foraging by the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides, Ecological Entomology, vol.17, issue.3, pp.161-168, 2012.
DOI : 10.1023/B:JOIR.0000048987.10357.a6

H. C. Godfray, Parasitoids: Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology, 1994.

A. Hassan, D. Burel, F. Plantegenest, M. Kindlmann, P. Butet et al., Relationship between the abundance of aphids and their natural enemies in cereal fields and landscape composition, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, vol.2, issue.2, pp.89-101, 2012.
DOI : 10.14712/23361964.2015.29

E. Hatano, G. Kunert, S. Bartram, W. Boland, J. Gershenzon et al., Do Aphid Colonies Amplify their Emission of Alarm Pheromone?, Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol.34, issue.1, pp.1149-1152, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/ee/2.1.101

URL : https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10886-008-9527-y.pdf

T. T. Hills and F. R. Adler, Time's crooked arrow: optimal foraging and rate-biased time perception, Animal Behaviour, vol.64, issue.4, pp.589-597, 2002.
DOI : 10.1006/anbe.2002.3070

A. Honek, Z. Martinkova, A. F. Dixon, and P. Saska, infesting winter wheat, Journal of Applied Entomology, vol.9, issue.5, pp.352-362, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/978-0-387-87458-6

Y. Iwasa, M. Higashi, and N. Yamamura, Prey Distribution as a Factor Determining the Choice of Optimal Foraging Strategy, The American Naturalist, vol.117, issue.5, pp.710-723, 1981.
DOI : 10.1086/283754

C. Joachim and W. W. Weisser, Does the Aphid Alarm Pheromone (E)-??-farnesene Act as a Kairomone under Field Conditions?, Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol.92, issue.6, pp.267-275, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s00114-005-0624-2

A. Langer, D. Stilmant, D. Verbois, and T. Hance, Activit?? saisonni??re et distribution des parasito??des de pucerons du froment d???hiver, Entomophaga, vol.77, issue.1-2, pp.185-191, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02769896

M. E. Lanteigne, J. Brodeur, S. Jenni, and G. Boivin, Patch Experience Changes Host Acceptance of the Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius ervi, Journal of Insect Behavior, vol.11, issue.4, pp.436-446, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1986.tb00311.x

M. A. Legrand, H. Colinet, P. Vernon, and T. Hance, Autumn, winter and spring dynamics of aphid Sitobion avenae and parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi interactions, Annals of Applied Biology, vol.17, issue.2, pp.139-144, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2486.1995.tb00029.x

L. Lann, C. Outreman, Y. Van-alphen, J. J. Krespi, L. Pierre et al., Do past experience and competitive ability influence foraging strategies of parasitoids under interspecific competition?, Ecological Entomology, vol.69, pp.691-700, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/aesa/92.4.601

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00337993

P. Louâpre, J. Van-baaren, J. S. Pierre, and J. J. Van-alphen, Information gleaned and former patch quality determine foraging behavior of parasitic wasps, Behavioral Ecology, vol.11, issue.5, pp.1064-1069, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/beheco/11.6.577

J. A. Mann, G. M. Tatchell, M. J. Dupuch, R. Harrington, S. J. Clark et al., Movement of apterous Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) in response to leaf disturbances caused by wind and rain, Annals of Applied Biology, vol.111, issue.3, pp.417-427, 1995.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-3180.1974.tb01084.x

E. A. Marschall, P. L. Chesson, and R. A. Stein, Foraging in a patchy environment: prey-encounter rate and residence time distributions, Animal Behaviour, vol.37, pp.444-454, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-3472(89)90091-2

URL : http://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/1811/45385/1/AEL_ChessonP_AnimalBehaviour_1989_v37_n3_p444-454.pdf

S. G. Micha and U. Wyss, Aphid alarm pheromone (E)-?-farnesene: A host finding kairomone for the aphid primary parasitoidAphidius uzbekistanicus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae), Chemoecology, vol.17, issue.3, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/aesa/60.3.668

, Chemoecology, vol.7, pp.132-139

W. H. Morgan, E. Thébault, C. L. Seymour, and F. J. Van-veen, Density dependence and environmental factors affect population stability of an agricultural pest and its specialist parasitoid, BioControl, vol.27, issue.2, pp.175-184, 2017.
DOI : 10.1007/978-0-387-87458-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01512928

F. Muratori, . Boivin, and T. Hance, The impact of patch encounter rate on patch residence time of female parasitoids increases with patch quality, Ecological Entomology, vol.8, issue.3, pp.422-427, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s10905-005-0473-z

Y. Outreman, L. Ralec, A. Wajnberg, E. Pierre, and J. S. , Can imperfect host discrimination explain partial patch exploitation in parasitoids?, Ecological Entomology, vol.48, issue.3, pp.271-280, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2656.1999.00270.x

Y. Outreman, L. Ralec, A. Plantegenest, M. Chaubet, B. Pierre et al., Superparasitism limitation in an aphid parasitoid: cornicle secretion avoidance and host discrimination ability, Journal of Insect Physiology, vol.47, issue.4-5, pp.339-348, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-1910(00)00142-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01368796

Y. Outreman, L. Ralec, A. Wajnberg, E. Pierre, and J. S. , Effects of within- and among-patch experiences on the patch-leaving decision rules in an insect parasitoid, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol.93, issue.2, pp.208-217, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1982.tb03150.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01346194

J. S. Pierre and R. F. Green, A Bayesian Approach to Optimal Foraging in Parasitoids, Behavioral Ecology of Insect Parasitoids, pp.357-383, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/9780470696200.ch16

J. Pierre, Neuroeconomics in parasitoids: computing accurately with a minute brain, Oikos, vol.60, issue.(2), pp.77-83, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18603.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00558409

J. Pinheiro, D. Bates, S. Dedroy, and D. Sarkar, , 2015.

L. Raymond, S. A. Ortiz-martinez, and B. Lavandero, Temporal variability of aphid biological control in contrasting landscape contexts, Biological Control, vol.90, pp.148-156, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2015.06.011

M. A. Riolo, P. Rohani, and M. D. Hunter, Local variation in plant quality influences large-scale population dynamics, Oikos, vol.81, issue.9, pp.1160-1170, 2015.
DOI : 10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[1565:TEOHPG]2.0.CO;2

D. F. Rincon, C. W. Hoy, and L. A. Cañas, Generating Within-Plant Spatial Distributions of an Insect Herbivore Based on Aggregation Patterns and Per-Node Infestation Probabilities, Environmental Entomology, vol.99, issue.3, pp.194-209, 2015.
DOI : 10.1093/jee/99.3.691

M. Rodrigues-girones and R. A. Vasquez, Density-Dependent Patch Exploitation and Acquisition of Environmental Information*1, Theoretical Population Biology, vol.52, issue.1, pp.32-42, 1997.
DOI : 10.1006/tpbi.1997.1317

L. Shaltiel and Y. Ayal, The use of kairomones for foraging decisions by an aphid parasitoid in small host aggregations, Ecological Entomology, vol.23, issue.3, pp.319-329, 1998.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2311.1998.00141.x

S. Sheng, S. F. Feng, L. Meng, and B. P. Li, Departure mechanisms for host search on highdensity patches by the Meteorus pulchricornis, Journal of Insect Science, vol.14, p.205, 2014.

L. Sigsgaard, A survey of aphids and aphid parasitoids in cereal fields in Denmark, and the parasitoids' role in biological control, Journal of Applied Entomology, vol.77, issue.2-3, pp.101-107, 2002.
DOI : 10.1017/S0007485300012050

J. J. Sloggett and W. W. Weisser, Parasitoids induce production of the dispersal morph of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Oikos, vol.85, issue.2, pp.323-333, 2002.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ento.42.1.207

T. Spataro and C. Bernstein, Influence of environmental conditions on patch exploitation strategies of parasitoids, Behavioral Ecology, vol.16, issue.6, pp.742-749, 2007.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1023924103884

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00434656

D. W. Stephens and J. R. Krebs, Foraging Theory, 1986.

D. Stilmant, C. Bellinghen, T. Hance, and G. Boivin, Host specialization in habitat specialists and generalists, Oecologia, vol.17, issue.4, pp.905-912, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00442-003-1235-2

T. M. Therneau, Survival, 2014.

A. Thiel, How to measure patch encounter rate: decision-making mechanisms in the parasitic wasp Asobara tabida, Animal Cognition, vol.68, issue.1, pp.73-82, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00168643

A. Thiel and T. S. Hoffmeister, Knowing your habitat: linking patch-encounter rate and patch exploitation in parasitoids, Behavioral Ecology, vol.15, issue.3, pp.419-425, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/beheco/arh030

J. J. Van-alphen, C. Bernstein, and G. Driessen, Information acquisition and time allocation in insect parasitoids, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.18, issue.2, pp.81-87, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)00035-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427465

J. J. Van-alphen and C. Bernstein, Information acquisition, information processing, and patch time allocation in insect parasitoids Behavioural Ecology of Insect Parasitoids: from Theoretical Approaches to Field Applications, Wajnberg, Bernstein & van Alphen), pp.172-192, 2008.

S. Vandermoten, M. C. Mescher, F. Francis, E. Haubruge, and F. J. Verheggen, Aphid alarm pheromone: An overview of current knowledge on biosynthesis and functions, Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.42, issue.3, pp.155-163, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ibmb.2011.11.008

R. A. Vásquez, B. Grossi, N. Márquez, and I. , On the value of information: studying changes in patch assessment abilities through learning, Oïkos, vol.112, pp.298-310, 2006.

M. E. Visser, T. H. Jones, and G. Driessen, Interference among insect parasitoids: a multi-patch experiment, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.79, issue.1, pp.108-120, 1999.
DOI : 10.2307/3546103

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2656.1999.00269.x/pdf

J. K. Waage, Foraging for Patchily-Distributed Hosts by the Parasitoid, Nemeritis canescens, The Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.48, issue.2, pp.353-371, 1979.
DOI : 10.2307/4166

L. Winder, C. J. Alexander, C. Woolley, J. N. Perry, and J. M. Holland, Cereal Aphid Colony Turnover and Persistence in Winter Wheat, PLoS ONE, vol.30, issue.9, p.106822, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0106822.s002

URL : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106822