High bone mass in adults

Abstract : A finding of high bone mineral density (BMD) from routine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) screening is not uncommon. No consensus exists about the definition of high BMD, and T-score and/or Z-score cutoffs of ≥+2.5 or ≥+4 have been suggested. The many disorders that can result in high BMD are usually classified based on whether the BMD changes are focal vs. generalized or acquired vs. constitutional. In over half the cases, careful interpretation of the DXA report and images identifies the cause as an artefact (e.g., degenerative spinal disease, vascular calcifications, or syndesmophytes) or focal lesion (e.g., sclerotic bone metastasis or Paget's disease). Generalized acquired high BMD may be secondary to a diverse range of disorders such as fluorosis, diffuse bone sclerosis related to renal osteodystrophy, hematological diseases, and hepatitis C. Identification of the cause may require additional investigations such as imaging studies, serum tryptase assay, or serological tests for the hepatitis C virus. Finally, high BMD is a feature of many genetic diseases, most notably osteopetrosis and the disorders caused by mutations in the sclerostin gene SOST (sclerosing bone dysplasia and van Buchem disease) or in the LRP5 gene encoding the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (which is the Wnt co-receptor).
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Journal articles
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 5, 2018 - 2:16:52 PM
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Julien Paccou, Laetitia Michou, Sami Kolta, Françoise Debiais, Bernard Cortet, et al.. High bone mass in adults. Joint Bone Spine, Elsevier Masson, 2018, 85 (6), pp.693-699. ⟨10.1016/j.jbspin.2018.01.007⟩. ⟨hal-01808101⟩

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