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, EM data demonstrate that polysomes are arranged as compact staggered or pseudohelical structures in vitro

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, Huge numbers of ribosomes are synthesized in fast-proliferating cells, vol.21, pp.42-44

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, Several copies of a protein are translated from a single mRNA (multi-round translation)

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, The rates of translation and transcription are nearly the same, since every 3 base pairs are translated into one amino acid [40]. For example, the transcriptional rate is 42 nucleotides/sec and the translational rate is 14 amino acids/sec in the same cells

, Most translation occurs on complete mRNAs

, Ribosomes can easily dimerize when cells encounter stress

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, The ribosomal compartment protects ribosomes and mRNA from degradation

, Our model allows mRNA, translation factors, and newly synthesized proteins to make their way along the pathways through the compartment

, RNAP interacts with 30S and 50S ribosomal particles and with the whole 70S ribosome

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