The contribution of genomics in the medicine of tomorrow, clinical applications and issues

Abstract : Fifteen years after the completion of first human genome sequencing, the technique is almost a commodity but there is still little evidence of its usefulness as a diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic tool. In France, the France genomics plan 2025 was launched in 2015 with the goal of integrating genomic tests into clinical practice and developing a National genomics network including industrial partnerships. Reflection on scientific applications and operational or societal issues is needed to make recommendations to help better associate Genomics and the medicine of tomorrow. In the perspective of personalized Evidence-based Medicine, studies with an appropriate methodological level to improve the definition of evidence should be promoted. The many operational challenges require the implementation of organisations and means to streamline the process of results reporting, and regulatory adaptations concerning the status of professions involved, the management of data generated, and the consent of patients. In parallel, genetic training for healthcare professionals and raising awareness on genetic tests for the public should be considered. The ethical stake should also be taken into account, especially on the participation of the patient in decisions concerning them and integrating the notion of uncertainty into the information given. The sociological effects on the experience and expectations of patients and the general population towards genomic medicine should also be evaluated to improve information, prevention and support for people. Finally, medico-economic studies must be conducted to inform policy-makers on the cost-effectiveness of complete genome sequencing for population health.
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Bruno Laviolle, Patrice Denèfle, François Gueyffier. The contribution of genomics in the medicine of tomorrow, clinical applications and issues. Thérapie, EDP Sciences, 2018, 74 (1), pp.9-15. ⟨10.1016/j.therap.2018.11.012⟩. ⟨hal-02019324⟩

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