Effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on ventilator-associated pneumonia in severe traumatic brain injury. A post hoc analysis of two trials

Abstract : Purpose To investigate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Materials and methods This post hoc analysis was conducted based on data from 2 multicentre double-blind studies that aimed to prevent VAP using hydrocortisone or povidone iodine. Data from TBI patients were extracted and pooled. Patients were classified into 2 groups those who received an AP (AP group) and those who did not (control group). Results 295 patients were included (AP group, n = 146; control group, n = 149). The incidence of VAP was 145 (49%). VAP incidence was lower in the AP group (39% vs 59%, Relative Risk = 0.33, 95%CI, 0.19–0.56, p = 0.001). Time to VAP occurrence was delayed (Hazard Ratio = 0.50, 95%CI 0.36–0.69, p < 0.001). The incidence of early VAP (>2 and ≤ 5 days) was lower in the AP group (10% vs 32%; p < 0.001), whereas that of late VAP (>5 days) did not differ (AP group 29% vs control group 28%; p = 0.811). Length of stay and mortality did not differ between the 2 groups. Conclusions Early use of AP delayed and may prevent the occurrence of VAP in severe TBI patients but did not change length of stay or mortality. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 20, 2019 - 1:22:36 PM
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F. Reizine, K. Asehnoune, A. Roquilly, B. Laviolle, C. Rousseau, et al.. Effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on ventilator-associated pneumonia in severe traumatic brain injury. A post hoc analysis of two trials. Journal of Critical Care, WB Saunders, 2019, 50, pp.221-226. ⟨10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.12.010⟩. ⟨hal-02042390⟩

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