Broad-range 16 s rDNA PCR in synovial fluid does not improve the diagnostic performance of septic arthritis in native joints in adults cross-sectional single-center study in 95 patients

Abstract : Objective - To evaluate the diagnostic performance of bacterial identification by broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 16 s (16S rDNA PCR) for the diagnosis of septic arthritis on native joints. Methods - Patients with acute mono or oligoarthritis who underwent synovial fluid puncture and prospective follow-up allowing definitive diagnosis (septic arthritis, crystal related disease, chronic inflammatory arthritis, undifferentiated arthritis) were recruited in this single-center study. Systematic analysis of synovial fluid included leukocytes count, search for urate and pyrophosphate crystals with polarized light microscopy, direct bacteriological examination (gram staining), bacteriological culture, and 16S rDNA PCR. Results - Ninety-five patients were included, 34 of which (35.8%) had septic arthritis. Nineteen (20.0%) patients had received probabilistic antibiotic therapy prior to joint puncture. Gram + cocci infection accounted for 79.4% of septic arthritis, of which nearly half (47.1%) was caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Eight (23.5%) septic arthritis patients had a 16S rDNA PCR positive in the synovial fluid with an AUC of 0.618 (95% CI, 0.493-0.742), a sensitivity of 0.24 (95% CI, 0.12-0.40), and a specificity of 1.00 (95% CI 0.94-1.00). The diagnostic performance of 16S rDNA PCR was lower than that of direct examination (AUC at 0.691, CI 95%, 0.570-0.812), blood cultures (AUC at 0.727, CI 95%, 0.610-0.844), and culture (0.925, CI 95%, 0.856-0.994) for the diagnosis of septic arthritis. There was no difference in the positivity of 16S rDNA PCR according to previous exposure to antibiotics. Conclusions - 16 s rDNA PCR in the synovial fluid does not improve the diagnostic performance of septic arthritis on native adult joints, particularly for Gram-positive cocci infections.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 2, 2019 - 2:02:57 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, June 27, 2019 - 1:17:46 PM

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G Coiffier, C David, P Gauthier, H Le Bars, P Guggenbuhl, et al.. Broad-range 16 s rDNA PCR in synovial fluid does not improve the diagnostic performance of septic arthritis in native joints in adults cross-sectional single-center study in 95 patients. Clinical Rheumatology, Springer Verlag, 2019, 38 (7), pp.1985-1992. ⟨10.1007/s10067-019-04492-7⟩. ⟨hal-02087895⟩

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