E. Voerman, S. Santos, R. Gaillard, W. V. Vincent, S. Jaddoe-;-ellis-voerman et al., Yannis Manios

M. Santos, C. Standl, E. Stoltenberg, C. Thiering, M. Thijs et al.,

P. Writing--review-&-editing:-bernadeta-patro-golab, F. Amiano, H. Ballester, A. Barros, M. Bergström et al.,

M. Santos, C. Standl, E. Stoltenberg, C. Thiering, M. Thijs et al.,

L. Poston, R. Caleyachetty, S. Cnattingius, C. Corvalan, R. Uauy et al., Preconceptional and maternal obesity: epidemiology and health consequences, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol.4, pp.1025-1061, 2016.

R. Gaillard, S. Santos, L. Duijts, and J. F. Felix, Childhood health consequences of maternal obesity during pregnancy: a narrative review, Ann Nutr Metab, vol.69, pp.171-80, 2016.

K. M. Godfrey, R. M. Reynolds, S. L. Prescott, M. Nyirenda, V. W. Jaddoe et al., Influence of maternal obesity on the long-term health of offspring, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol.5, issue.16, pp.30107-30110, 2017.

Z. Yu, S. Han, J. Zhu, X. Sun, C. Ji et al., Pre-pregnancy body mass index in relation to infant birth weight and offspring overweight/obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS ONE, vol.8, 2013.

I. Nehring, S. Lehmann, and R. Von-kries, Gestational weight gain in accordance to the IOM/NRC criteria and the risk for childhood overweight: a meta-analysis, Pediatr Obes, vol.8, p.23172639, 2013.

H. T. Tie, Y. Y. Xia, Y. S. Zeng, Y. Zhang, C. L. Dai et al., Risk of childhood overweight or obesity associated with excessive weight gain during pregnancy: a meta-analysis, Arch Gynecol Obstet, vol.289, p.24141389, 2014.

A. A. Mamun, M. Mannan, and S. A. Doi, Gestational weight gain in relation to offspring obesity over the life course: a systematic review and bias-adjusted meta-analysis, Obes Rev, vol.15, pp.338-385, 2014.

S. Santos, I. Eekhout, E. Voerman, R. Gaillard, H. Barros et al., Gestational weight gain charts for different body mass index groups for women in Europe, North America, and Oceania, BMC Med, vol.16, p.30396358, 0201.

P. Golab, B. Santos, S. Voerman, E. Lawlor, D. A. Jaddoe et al., Influence of maternal obesity on the association between common pregnancy complications and risk of childhood obesity: an individual participant data meta-analysis, Lancet Child Adolesc Health, vol.2, issue.18, pp.30273-30279, 2018.

, World Health Organization. Body mass index-BMI. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2019.

, National Research Council (US) Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Weight gain during pregnancy: Reexamining the guidelines, 2009.

, WHO child growth standards based on length/ height, weight and age, Acta Paediatr Suppl, vol.450, p.16817681, 2006.

M. De-onis, A. W. Onyango, E. Borghi, A. Siyam, C. Nishida et al., Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents, Bull World Health Organ, vol.85, pp.660-667, 2007.

T. P. Debray, K. G. Moons, G. M. Abo-zaid, H. Koffijberg, and R. D. Riley, Individual participant data meta-analysis for a binary outcome: one-stage or two-stage?, PLoS ONE, vol.8, 2013.

K. M. Flegal, B. I. Graubard, and D. F. Williamson, Methods of calculating deaths attributable to obesity, Am J Epidemiol, vol.160, pp.331-339, 2004.

N. Zalbahar, J. Najman, H. D. Mcintyre, and A. Mamun, Parental pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of offspring weight and body mass index change from childhood to adulthood, Clin Obes, vol.7, pp.206-221, 2017.

A. Oostvogels, M. Hof, M. Gademan, T. J. Roseboom, K. Stronks et al., Does maternal prepregnancy overweight or obesity influence offspring's growth patterns from birth up to 7 years? The ABCD-study, Early Hum Dev, vol.113, pp.62-70, 2017.

R. F. Goldstein, S. K. Abell, S. Ranasinha, M. Misso, J. A. Boyle et al., Associations of gestational weight gain with maternal and infant outcomes, JAMA, vol.317, pp.2207-2232, 2017.

E. Y. Lau, J. Liu, E. Archer, S. M. Mcdonald, and J. Liu, Maternal weight gain in pregnancy and risk of obesity among offspring: a systematic review, J Obes, p.524939, 2014.

L. Guo, J. Liu, R. Ye, J. Liu, Z. Zhuang et al., Gestational weight gain and overweight in children aged 3-6 years, J Epidemiol, vol.25, pp.536-579, 2015.

S. A. Leonard, K. M. Rasmussen, J. C. King, and B. Abrams, Trajectories of maternal weight from before pregnancy through postpartum and associations with childhood obesity, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.106, pp.1295-301, 2017.

R. Gaillard, Maternal obesity during pregnancy and cardiovascular development and disease in the offspring, Eur J Epidemiol, vol.30, pp.1141-52, 2015.

M. W. Gillman, Gestational weight gain: now and the future, Circulation, vol.125, pp.1339-1379, 2012.

L. Poston, Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and diet as determinants of offspring long term health, Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.26, pp.627-666, 2012.

P. M. Catalano and K. Shankar, Obesity and pregnancy: mechanisms of short term and long term adverse consequences for mother and child, BMJ, vol.356, p.1, 2017.

G. C. Sharp, D. A. Lawlor, R. C. Richmond, A. Fraser, A. Simpkin et al., Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, offspring DNA methylation and later offspring adiposity: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Int J Epidemiol, vol.44, pp.1288-304, 2015.

K. Silventoinen, A. Jelenkovic, R. Sund, Y. M. Hur, Y. Yokoyama et al., Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.104, pp.371-380, 2016.

J. Tyrrell, R. C. Richmond, T. M. Palmer, B. Feenstra, J. Rangarajan et al., Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight, JAMA, vol.315, issue.11, pp.1129-1169, 2016.

S. Y. Kim, J. L. England, J. A. Sharma, and T. Njoroge, Gestational diabetes mellitus and risk of childhood overweight and obesity in offspring: a systematic review, Exp Diabetes Res, 2011.

E. F. Davis, M. Lazdam, A. J. Lewandowski, S. A. Worton, B. Kelly et al., Cardiovascular risk factors in children and young adults born to preeclamptic pregnancies: a systematic review, Pediatrics, vol.129, pp.1552-61, 2012.

E. F. Davis, A. J. Lewandowski, C. Aye, W. Williamson, H. Boardman et al., Clinical cardiovascular risk during young adulthood in offspring of hypertensive pregnancies: insights from a 20-year prospective follow-up birth cohort, BMJ Open, vol.5, p.8136, 2015.

K. Karastergiou, S. R. Smith, A. S. Greenberg, and S. K. Fried, Sex differences in human adipose tissues-the biology of pear shape, Biol Sex Differ, vol.3, p.13, 2012.

E. Fuente-martin, P. Argente-arizon, R. P. Argente, J. Chowen, and J. A. , Sex differences in adipose tissue: it is not only a question of quantity and distribution, Adipocyte, vol.2, pp.128-162, 2013.

S. Thangaratinam, E. Rogozinska, K. Jolly, S. Glinkowski, T. Roseboom et al., Effects of interventions in pregnancy on maternal weight and obstetric outcomes: meta-analysis of randomised evidence, BMJ, vol.344, 2012.

J. M. Dodd, A. R. Deussen, M. I. Rifas-shiman, S. L. Yelland, L. N. Louise et al., The effect of antenatal lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese on secondary measures of neonatal body composition: the LIMIT randomised trial, BJOG, vol.123, pp.244-53, 2016.

L. Poston, R. Bell, H. Croker, A. C. Flynn, K. M. Godfrey et al., Effect of a behavioural intervention in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT study): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol.3, pp.767-77, 2015.

A. K. Ronnberg, U. Hanson, and K. Nilsson, Effects of an antenatal lifestyle intervention on offspring obesitya 5-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, vol.96, pp.1093-1102, 2017.

, Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults, Lancet, vol.390, issue.17, pp.32129-32132, 2017.