B. C. Bastian, The molecular pathology of melanoma: An integrated taxonomy of melanocytic neoplasia, Annu. Rev. Pathol, vol.9, pp.239-271, 2014.

S. Weiss, D. Hanniford, E. Hernando, and I. Osman, Revisiting determinants of prognosis in cutanous melanoma, Cancer, vol.121, pp.4108-4123, 2015.

M. D. Williams, Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: Mucosal Melanomas, Head Neck Pathol, vol.11, pp.110-117, 2017.

P. E. Leboit, G. Burg, D. Weedon, and A. Sarasain, World Health Organization Classification of Tumours, In Pathology and Genetics of Skin Tumours, 2006.

H. S. Greenwald, E. B. Friedman, and I. Osman, Superficial spreading and nodular melanoma are distinct biological entities: A challenge to the linear progression model, Melanoma Res, vol.22, pp.1-8, 2012.

H. Tsao, L. Chin, L. A. Garraway, D. E. Fisher, and . Melanoma, From mutations to medicine, Genes Dev, vol.26, pp.1131-1155, 2012.

, Genes, vol.10, 2019.

G. C. Leonardi, L. Falzone, R. Salemi, A. Zanghì, D. A. Spandidos et al., Cutaneous melanoma: From pathogenesis to therapy (Review), Int. J. Oncol, vol.52, pp.1071-1080, 2018.

N. Lee, S. R. Barthel, and T. Schatton, Melanoma Stem Cells and Metastasis: Mimicking Hematopoietic Cell Trafficking? Lab. Investig, vol.94, pp.13-30, 2014.

S. J. Furney, S. Turajlic, G. Stamp, M. Nohadani, A. Carlisle et al., Genome sequencing of mucosal melanomas reveals that they are driven by distinct mechanisms from cutaneous melanoma, J. Pathol, vol.230, pp.261-269, 2013.

B. Lian, C. L. Cui, L. Zhou, X. Song, X. S. Zhang et al., The natural history and patterns of metastases from mucosal melanoma: An analysis of 706 prospectively-followed patients, Ann. Oncol, vol.28, pp.868-873, 2017.

M. C. Criscito and J. A. Stein, Improving the diagnosis and treatment of acral melanocytic lesions. Melanoma Manag, vol.4, pp.113-123, 2017.

S. S. Yde, P. Sjoegren, M. Heje, and L. B. Stolle, Mucosal Melanoma: A Literature Review, Curr. Oncol. Rep, vol.20, 2018.

D. M. Marcus, R. P. Marcus, R. S. Prabhu, T. K. Owonikoko, D. H. Lawson et al., Rising Incidence of Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck in the United States, J. Skin Cancer, 2012.

D. D. Kirchoff, G. B. Deutsch, L. J. Foshag, J. H. Lee, M. Sim et al., Evolving Therapeutic Strategies in Mucosal Melanoma Have not Improved Survival Over Five Decades, p.25, 2019.

M. T. Andreoli, W. F. Mieler, and Y. I. Leiderman, Epidemiological trends in uveal melanoma, Br. J. Ophthalmol, vol.99, pp.1550-1553, 2015.

S. Eskelin, S. Pyrhönen, P. Summanen, M. Hahka-kemppinen, and T. Kivelä, Tumor doubling times in metastatic malignant melanoma of the uvea: Tumor progression before and after treatment, Ophthalmology, vol.107, pp.1443-1449, 2000.

A. G. Robertson, J. Shih, C. Yau, E. A. Gibb, J. Oba et al., Integrative Analysis Identifies Four Molecular and Clinical Subsets in Uveal Melanoma, Cancer Cell, vol.33, p.151, 2018.

L. Van-der-weyden, E. E. Patton, G. A. Wood, A. K. Foote, T. Brenn et al., Cross-species models of human melanoma, J. Pathol, vol.238, pp.152-165, 2016.

H. L. Gardner, J. M. Fenger, and C. A. London, Dogs as a Model for Cancer, Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci, vol.4, pp.199-222, 2016.

E. A. Ostrander, D. L. Dreger, and J. M. Evans, Canine Cancer Genomics: Lessons for Canine and Human Health, Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci, vol.7, pp.449-472, 2019.

J. D. Schiffman and M. Breen, Comparative oncology: What dogs and other species can teach us about humans with cancer, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. Biol. Sci, vol.370, 2015.

R. Ulvé, M. Rault, M. Bahin, L. Lagoutte, J. Abadie et al., Discovery of Human-Similar Gene Fusions in Canine Cancers, Cancer Res, vol.77, pp.5721-5727, 2017.

R. Thomas, L. Borst, D. Rotroff, A. Motsinger-reif, K. Lindblad-toh et al., Genomic profiling reveals extensive heterogeneity in somatic DNA copy number aberrations of canine hemangiosarcoma, Chromosome Res, vol.22, pp.305-319, 2014.

B. Decker, H. G. Parker, D. Dhawan, E. M. Kwon, E. Karlins et al., Homologous Mutation to Human BRAF V600E Is Common in Naturally Occurring Canine Bladder Cancer-Evidence for a Relevant Model System and Urine-Based Diagnostic Test, Mol. Cancer Res, vol.13, pp.993-1002, 2015.

I. Elvers, J. Turner-maier, R. Swofford, M. Koltookian, J. Johnson et al., Exome sequencing of lymphomas from three dog breeds reveals somatic mutation patterns reflecting genetic background, Genome Res, vol.25, pp.1634-1645, 2015.

S. Sakthikumar, I. Elvers, J. Kim, M. L. Arendt, R. Thomas et al., SETD2 Is Recurrently Mutated in Whole-Exome Sequenced Canine Osteosarcoma, Cancer Res, vol.78, pp.3421-3431, 2018.

, Genes, vol.10, 2019.

M. L. Arendt, M. Melin, N. Tonomura, M. Koltookian, C. Courtay-cahen et al., Genome-Wide Association Study of Golden Retrievers Identifies Germ-Line Risk Factors Predisposing to Mast Cell Tumours, PLoS Genet, vol.11, 2015.

T. Thaiwong, S. Sirivisoot, M. Takada, V. Yuzbasiyan-gurkan, and M. Kiupel, Gain-of-function mutation in PTPN11 in histiocytic sarcomas of Bernese Mountain Dogs, Vet. Comp. Oncol, vol.16, pp.220-228, 2018.

W. P. Hendricks, V. Zismann, K. Sivaprakasam, C. Legendre, K. Poorman et al., Somatic inactivating PTPRJ mutations and dysregulated pathways identified in canine malignant melanoma by integrated comparative genomic analysis

K. Wong, L. Van-der-weyden, C. R. Schott, A. Foote, F. Constantino-casas et al., Cross-species genomic landscape comparison of human mucosal melanoma with canine oral and equine melanoma, Nat. Commun, vol.10, 2019.

A. T. Nishiya, C. O. Massoco, C. R. Felizzola, E. Perlmann, K. Batschinski et al., Comparative Aspects of Canine Melanoma. Vet. Sci, vol.3, issue.7, 2016.

B. Hernandez, H. A. Adissu, B. Wei, H. T. Michael, G. Merlino et al., Naturally Occurring Canine Melanoma as a Predictive Comparative Oncology Model for Human Mucosal and Other Triple Wild-Type Melanomas, Int. J. Mol. Sci, vol.19, 2018.

R. M. Simpson, B. C. Bastian, H. T. Michael, J. D. Webster, M. L. Prasad et al., Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma, Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, vol.27, pp.37-47, 2014.

M. Gillard, E. Cadieu, C. De-brito, J. Abadie, B. Vergier et al., Naturally occurring melanomas in dogs as models for non-UV pathways of human melanomas, Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, vol.27, pp.90-102, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01002709

G. Barutello, V. Rolih, M. Arigoni, L. Tarone, L. Conti et al., Strengths and Weaknesses of Pre-Clinical Models for Human Melanoma Treatment: Dawn of Dogs' Revolution for Immunotherapy, Int. J. Mol. Sci, vol.19, 2018.

W. L. Spangler and P. H. Kass, The histologic and epidemiologic bases for prognostic considerations in canine melanocytic neoplasia, Vet. Pathol, vol.43, pp.136-149, 2006.

S. H. Smith, M. H. Goldschmidt, and P. M. Mcmanus, A comparative review of melanocytic neoplasms, Vet. Pathol, vol.39, pp.651-678, 2002.

S. J. Withrow, D. M. Vail, and R. L. Page, Withrow and MacEwen's Small Animal Clinical Oncology, pp.978-979, 2013.

A. Prouteau, C. De-brito, E. Cadieu, M. Gillard, J. Abadie et al., A prospective study of 420 canine melanocytic tumors: survival analysis and prognostic factors, 2019.

L. K. Brockley, M. A. Cooper, and P. F. Bennett, Malignant melanoma in 63 dogs, The effect of carboplatin chemotherapy on survival, vol.61, pp.25-31, 2001.

P. C. Schultheiss, Histologic features and clinical outcomes of melanomas of lip, haired skin, and nail bed locations of dogs, J. Vet. Diagn. Investig, vol.18, pp.422-425, 2006.

J. A. Ramos-vara, M. E. Beissenherz, M. A. Miller, G. C. Johnson, L. W. Pace et al., Retrospective study of 338 canine oral melanomas with clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical review of 129 cases, Vet. Pathol, vol.37, pp.597-608, 2000.

P. J. Bergman, Canine oral melanoma, Clin. Tech. Small Anim. Pract, vol.22, pp.55-60, 2007.

J. M. Dobson, Breed-predispositions to cancer in pedigree dogs, ISRN Vet. Sci, 2013.

A. Vinayak, C. B. Frank, D. W. Gardiner, K. M. Thieman-mankin, and D. R. Worley, Malignant anal sac melanoma in dogs: Eleven cases, J. Small Anim. Pract, vol.58, pp.231-237, 2000.

E. P. Spugnini, E. Dragonetti, R. Murace, R. Cassandro, A. M. Groeger et al., Spontaneous Intestinal Melanoma in Dogs, vol.19, pp.1051-1054, 2005.

D. G. Hicks and J. L. Fidel, Intranasal malignant melanoma in a dog, J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc, vol.42, pp.472-476, 2006.

, Genes, vol.10, 2019.

O. Davies, S. Spencer, S. Necova, E. Holmes, A. Taylor et al., Intranasal melanoma treated with radiation therapy in three dogs, vol.37, pp.274-281, 2017.

J. Lemetayer, A. Al-dissi, K. Tryon, and V. Macdonald-dickinson, Primary intranasal melanoma with brain invasion in a dog, Can. Vet. J, vol.58, pp.391-396, 2017.

D. R. Proulx, D. M. Ruslander, R. K. Dodge, M. L. Hauck, L. E. Williams et al., A retrospective analysis of 140 dogs with oral melanoma treated with external beam radiation, Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound, vol.44, pp.352-359, 2003.

B. N. Sarowitz, G. J. Davis, and S. Kim, Outcome and prognostic factors following curative-intent surgery for oral tumours in dogs: 234 cases, J. Small Anim. Pract, vol.58, pp.146-153, 2004.

J. L. Tuohy, L. E. Selmic, D. R. Worley, N. P. Ehrhart, and S. J. Withrow, Outcome following curative-intent surgery for oral melanoma in dogs: 70 cases, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc, vol.245, pp.1266-1273, 1998.

R. C. Smedley, W. L. Spangler, D. G. Esplin, B. E. Kitchell, P. J. Bergman et al., Prognostic markers for canine melanocytic neoplasms: A comparative review of the literature and goals for future investigation, Vet. Pathol, vol.48, pp.54-72, 2011.

F. Millanta, F. Fratini, M. Corazza, M. Castagnaro, V. Zappulli et al., Proliferation activity in oral and cutaneous canine melanocytic tumours: Correlation with histological parameters, location, and clinical behaviour, Res. Vet. Sci, vol.73, pp.45-51, 2002.

D. G. Esplin, Survival of dogs following surgical excision of histologically well-differentiated melanocytic neoplasms of the mucous membranes of the lips and oral cavity, Vet. Pathol, vol.45, pp.889-896, 2008.

J. Wallace, D. T. Matthiesen, and A. K. Patnaik, Hemimaxillectomy for the treatment of oral tumors in 69 dogs, Vet. Surg, vol.21, pp.337-341, 1992.

J. K. Kosovsky, D. T. Matthiesen, S. M. Marretta, and A. K. Patnaik, Results of Partial Mandibulectomy for the Treatment of Oral Tumors in 142 Dogs, Vet. Surg, vol.20, pp.397-401, 1991.

S. E. Boston, X. Lu, W. T. Culp, V. Montinaro, G. Romanelli et al., Efficacy of systemic adjuvant therapies administered to dogs after excision of oral malignant melanomas: 151 cases, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc, vol.245, pp.401-407, 2001.

M. A. Tollett, L. Duda, D. C. Brown, and E. L. Krick, Palliative radiation therapy for solid tumors in dogs: 103 cases, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc, vol.248, pp.72-82, 2007.

S. Murphy, A. M. Hayes, L. Blackwood, G. Maglennon, H. Pattinson et al., Oral malignant melanoma-The effect of coarse fractionation radiotherapy alone or with adjuvant carboplatin therapy, Vet. Comp. Oncol, vol.3, pp.222-229, 2005.

M. Kawabe, T. Mori, Y. Ito, M. Murakami, H. Sakai et al., Outcomes of dogs undergoing radiotherapy for treatment of oral malignant melanoma: 111 cases, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc, vol.247, pp.1146-1153, 2006.

S. Cancedda, C. Rohrer-bley, L. Aresu, M. Dacasto, V. F. Leone et al., Efficacy and side effects of radiation therapy in comparison with radiation therapy and temozolomide in the treatment of measurable canine malignant melanoma, Vet. Comp. Oncol, vol.14, pp.146-157, 2016.

K. E. Bateman, P. A. Catton, P. W. Pennock, and S. A. Kruth, 0-7-21 radiation therapy for the treatment of canine oral melanoma, J. Vet. Intern. Med, vol.8, pp.267-272, 1994.

K. P. Freeman, K. A. Hahn, F. D. Harris, and G. K. King, Treatment of dogs with oral melanoma by hypofractionated radiation therapy and platinum-based chemotherapy (1987-1997), J. Vet. Intern. Med, vol.17, pp.96-101, 2003.

G. Dank, M. B. Chien, and C. A. London, Activating mutations in the catalytic or juxtamembrane domain of c-kit in splenic mast cell tumors of cats, Am. J. Vet. Res, vol.63, pp.1129-1133, 2002.

K. M. Rassnick, D. M. Ruslander, S. M. Cotter, R. Al-sarraf, D. S. Bruyette et al., Use of carboplatin for treatment of dogs with malignant melanoma: 27 cases, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc, vol.218, pp.1444-1448, 1989.

J. C. Liao, P. Gregor, J. D. Wolchok, F. Orlandi, D. Craft et al., Vaccination with human tyrosinase DNA induces antibody responses in dogs with advanced melanoma, Cancer Immun, vol.6, 2006.

M. J. Atherton, J. S. Morris, M. R. Mcdermott, and B. D. Lichty, Cancer immunology and canine malignant melanoma: A comparative review, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol, vol.169, pp.15-26, 2016.

J. M. Ottnod, R. C. Smedley, R. Walshaw, J. G. Hauptman, M. Kiupel et al., A retrospective analysis of the efficacy of Oncept vaccine for the adjunct treatment of canine oral malignant melanoma, Vet. Comp. Oncol, vol.11, pp.219-229, 2013.

D. A. Grosenbaugh, A. T. Leard, P. J. Bergman, M. K. Klein, K. Meleo et al., Safety and efficacy of a xenogeneic DNA vaccine encoding for human tyrosinase as adjunctive treatment for oral malignant melanoma in dogs following surgical excision of the primary tumor, Am. J. Vet. Res, vol.72, pp.1631-1638, 2011.

J. L. Mclean and R. G. Lobetti, Use of the melanoma vaccine in 38 dogs: The South African experience, J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc, vol.86, 1246.

E. Treggiari, J. P. Grant, and S. M. North, A retrospective review of outcome and survival following surgery and adjuvant xenogeneic DNA vaccination in 32 dogs with oral malignant melanoma, J. Vet. Med. Sci, vol.78, pp.845-850, 2016.

S. Verganti, D. Berlato, L. Blackwood, I. Amores-fuster, G. A. Polton et al., Use of Oncept melanoma vaccine in 69 canine oral malignant melanomas in the UK, J. Small Anim. Pract, vol.58, pp.10-16, 2017.

E. G. Macewen, A. K. Patnaik, H. J. Harvey, A. A. Hayes, and R. Matus, Canine oral melanoma: Comparison of surgery versus surgery plus Corynebacterium parvum, Cancer Investig, vol.4, pp.397-402, 1986.

I. L. Bergin, R. C. Smedley, D. G. Esplin, W. L. Spangler, and M. Kiupel, Prognostic evaluation of Ki67 threshold value in canine oral melanoma, Vet. Pathol, vol.48, pp.41-53, 2011.

A. Murakami, T. Mori, H. Sakai, M. Murakami, T. Yanai et al., Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas, Vet. Comp. Oncol, vol.9, pp.219-224, 2011.

H. Mochizuki, K. Kennedy, S. G. Shapiro, and M. Breen, BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers, PLoS ONE, vol.10, 2015.

K. Poorman, L. Borst, S. Moroff, S. Roy, P. Labelle et al., Comparative cytogenetic characterization of primary canine melanocytic lesions using array CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization, Chromosome Res, vol.23, pp.171-186, 2015.

C. Hitte, E. Cadieu, A. Primot, B. Hedan, J. Abadie et al., Integrated Genetic Analysis of Canine Mucosal Melanoma from Three Predisposed Breeds, 2019.

, Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Genomic Classification of Cutaneous Melanoma. Cell, vol.161, pp.1681-1696, 2015.

J. Lyu, Z. Song, J. Chen, M. J. Shepard, H. Song et al., Whole-exome sequencing of oral mucosal melanoma reveals mutational profile and therapeutic targets, J. Pathol, vol.244, pp.358-366, 2018.

N. K. Hayward, J. S. Wilmott, N. Waddell, P. A. Johansson, M. A. Field et al., Whole-genome landscapes of major melanoma subtypes, Nature, vol.545, pp.175-180, 2017.

J. Ablain, M. Xu, H. Rothschild, R. C. Jordan, J. K. Mito et al., Human tumor genomics and zebrafish modeling identify SPRED1 loss as a driver of mucosal melanoma, Science, vol.362, pp.1055-1060, 2018.

M. Amit, S. Tam, A. S. Abdelmeguid, D. B. Roberts, Y. Takahashi et al., Mutation status among patients with sinonasal mucosal melanoma and its impact on survival, Br. J. Cancer, vol.116, pp.1564-1571, 2017.

J. D. Hintzsche, N. T. Gorden, C. M. Amato, J. Kim, K. E. Wuensch et al., Whole-exome sequencing identifies recurrent SF3B1 R625 mutation and comutation of NF1 and KIT in mucosal melanoma, Melanoma Res, vol.27, pp.189-199, 2017.

B. K. Blacklock, Z. Birand, L. E. Selmic, P. Nelissen, S. Murphy et al., Genome-wide analysis of canine oral malignant melanoma metastasis-associated gene expression, Sci. Rep, vol.9, p.6511, 2019.

J. S. Fowles, C. L. Denton, and D. L. Gustafson, Comparative analysis of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation and inhibition in human and canine melanoma, Vet. Comp. Oncol, vol.13, pp.288-304, 2015.

M. Potrony, C. Badenas, P. Aguilera, J. A. Puig-butille, C. Carrera et al., Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma, Ann. Transl. Med, 2015.

J. F. Modiano, M. G. Ritt, and J. Wojcieszyn, The molecular basis of canine melanoma: Pathogenesis and trends in diagnosis and therapy, J. Vet. Intern. Med, vol.13, pp.163-174, 1999.

D. E. Bostock, Prognosis after surgical excision of canine melanomas, Vet. Pathol, vol.16, pp.32-40, 1979.

C. Laprie, J. Abadie, M. F. Amardeilh, J. L. Net, M. Lagadic et al., MIB-1 immunoreactivity correlates with biologic behaviour in canine cutaneous melanoma, Vet. Dermatol, vol.12, pp.139-147, 2001.

M. H. Goldschmidt, Pigmented lesions of the skin, Clin. Dermatol, vol.12, pp.507-514, 1994.

S. Silvestri, I. Porcellato, L. Mechelli, L. Menchetti, S. Rapastella et al., Tumor Thickness and Modified Clark Level in Canine Cutaneous Melanocytic Tumors, Vet. Pathol, 2018.

T. Laver, B. R. Feldhaeusser, C. S. Robat, J. L. Baez, K. L. Cronin et al., Post-surgical outcome and prognostic factors in canine malignant melanomas of the haired skin: 87 cases, Can. Vet. J, vol.59, pp.981-987, 2003.

T. Zhang, K. Dutton-regester, K. M. Brown, and N. K. Hayward, The genomic landscape of cutaneous melanoma, Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, vol.29, pp.266-283, 2016.

M. H. Law, D. T. Bishop, J. E. Lee, M. Brossard, N. G. Martin et al., Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies five new susceptibility loci for cutaneous malignant melanoma, Nat. Genet, vol.47, pp.987-995, 2015.

D. L. Duffy, G. Zhu, X. Li, M. Sanna, M. M. Iles et al., Novel pleiotropic risk loci for melanoma and nevus density implicate multiple biological pathways, Nat. Commun, vol.9, 2018.

B. K. Wobeser, B. A. Kidney, B. E. Powers, S. J. Withrow, M. N. Mayer et al., Diagnoses and clinical outcomes associated with surgically amputated canine digits submitted to multiple veterinary diagnostic laboratories, Vet. Pathol, vol.44, pp.355-361, 2007.

C. J. Henry, W. G. Brewer, E. M. Whitley, J. W. Tyler, G. K. Ogilvie et al., Canine digital tumors: A veterinary cooperative oncology group retrospective study of 64 dogs, J. Vet. Intern. Med, vol.19, pp.720-724, 2005.

C. A. Manley, N. F. Leibman, J. D. Wolchok, I. C. Rivière, S. Bartido et al., Xenogeneic murine tyrosinase DNA vaccine for malignant melanoma of the digit of dogs, J. Vet. Intern. Med, vol.25, pp.94-99, 2011.

D. J. Marino, D. T. Matthiesen, J. D. Stefanacci, and S. D. Moroff, Evaluation of dogs with digit masses: 117 cases (1981-1991), J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc, vol.207, pp.726-728, 1995.

J. A. Curtin, J. Fridlyand, T. Kageshita, H. N. Patel, K. J. Busam et al., Distinct sets of genetic alterations in melanoma, N. Engl. J. Med, vol.353, pp.2135-2147, 2005.

B. P. Wilcock and R. L. Peiffer, Morphology and behavior of primary ocular melanomas in 91 dogs, Vet. Pathol, vol.23, pp.418-424, 1986.

R. W. Diters, R. R. Dubelzig, G. D. Aguirre, and G. M. Acland, Primary Ocular Melanoma in Dogs, Vet. Pathol, vol.20, pp.379-395, 1983.

E. A. Giuliano, R. Chappell, B. Fischer, and R. R. Dubielzig, A matched observational study of canine survival with primary intraocular melanocytic neoplasia, Vet. Ophthalmol, vol.2, pp.185-190, 1999.

P. Zoroquiain, E. Mayo-goldberg, S. Alghamdi, S. Alhumaid, E. Perlmann et al., Melanocytoma-like melanoma may be the missing link between benign and malignant uveal melanocytic lesions in humans and dogs: A comparative study, Melanoma Res, vol.26, pp.565-571, 2016.

P. Malho, K. Dunn, D. Donaldson, R. R. Dubielzig, Z. Birand et al., Investigation of prognostic indicators for human uveal melanoma as biomarkers of canine uveal melanoma metastasis, J. Small Anim. Pract, vol.54, pp.584-593, 2013.

N. M. Bussanich, Canine uveal melanoma: Series and literature review, J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc, vol.23, pp.415-422, 1987.

G. L. Rovesti, A. Guandalini, and R. Peiffer, Suspected latent vertebral metastasis of uveal melanoma in a dog: A case report, Vet. Ophthalmol, vol.4, pp.75-77, 2001.

E. Delgado, J. X. Silva, H. Pissarra, M. C. Peleteiro, and R. R. Dubielzig, Late prostatic metastasis of an uveal melanoma in a miniature Schnauzer dog, Clin. Case Rep, vol.4, pp.647-652, 2016.

M. Diener-west, S. M. Reynolds, D. J. Agugliaro, R. Caldwell, K. Cumming et al., Development of metastatic disease after enrollment in the COMS trials for treatment of choroidal melanoma: Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group Report No. 26, Arch. Ophthalmol, vol.123, pp.1639-1643, 2005.

M. D. Onken, L. A. Worley, M. D. Tuscan, and J. W. Harbour, An accurate, clinically feasible multi-gene expression assay for predicting metastasis in uveal melanoma, J. Mol. Diagn, vol.12, pp.461-468, 2010.

L. Nordio, A. T. Marques, C. Lecchi, A. M. Luciano, D. Stefanello et al., Immunohistochemical Expression of FXR1 in Canine Normal Tissues and Melanomas, J. Histochem. Cytochem, vol.66, pp.585-593, 2018.

C. D. Van-raamsdonk, V. Bezrookove, G. Green, J. Bauer, L. Gaugler et al., Frequent somatic mutations of GNAQ in uveal melanoma and blue naevi, Nature, vol.457, pp.599-602, 2009.

K. G. Griewank, J. Van-de-nes, B. Schilling, I. Moll, A. Sucker et al., Genetic and clinico-pathologic analysis of metastatic uveal melanoma, Mod. Pathol, vol.27, pp.175-183, 2014.

C. D. Van-raamsdonk, K. G. Griewank, M. B. Crosby, M. C. Garrido, S. Vemula et al., Mutations in GNA11 in uveal melanoma, N. Engl. J. Med, vol.363, pp.2191-2199, 2010.

S. Walpole, A. L. Pritchard, C. M. Cebulla, R. Pilarski, M. Stautberg et al., Comprehensive Study of the Clinical Phenotype of Germline BAP1 Variant-Carrying Families Worldwide, J. Natl. Cancer Inst, vol.110, pp.1328-1341, 2018.

K. G. Ewens, E. Lalonde, J. Richards-yutz, C. L. Shields, and A. Ganguly, Comparison of Germline versus Somatic BAP1 Mutations for Risk of Metastasis in Uveal Melanoma, BMC Cancer, vol.18, p.1172, 2018.

L. Mobuchon, A. Battistella, C. Bardel, G. Scelo, A. Renoud et al., A GWAS in uveal melanoma identifies risk polymorphisms in the CLPTM1L locus, NPJ Genom

C. A. Barker and N. Y. Lee, Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous Melanoma, Dermatol. Clin, vol.30, pp.525-533, 2012.

H. Tyrrell and M. Payne, Combatting mucosal melanoma: Recent advances and future perspectives. Melanoma Manag, vol.5, 2018.

R. J. Sullivan, M. B. Atkins, J. M. Kirkwood, S. S. Agarwala, J. I. Clark et al., An update on the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on tumor immunotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous melanoma: Version 2.0, J. Immunother. Cancer, vol.6, p.44, 2018.

R. M. Almela and A. Ansón, A Review of Immunotherapeutic Strategies in Canine Malignant Melanoma, Vet. Sci, vol.6, 2019.

J. J. Luke, K. T. Flaherty, A. Ribas, and G. V. Long, Targeted agents and immunotherapies: Optimizing outcomes in melanoma, Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol, vol.14, pp.463-482, 2017.

S. P. D'angelo, J. Larkin, J. A. Sosman, C. Lebbé, B. Brady et al., Efficacy and Safety of Nivolumab Alone or in Combination With Ipilimumab in Patients With Mucosal Melanoma: A Pooled Analysis, J. Clin. Oncol, vol.35, pp.226-235, 2017.

M. Tagawa, C. Kurashima, S. Takagi, N. Maekawa, S. Konnai et al., Evaluation of costimulatory molecules in dogs with B cell high grade lymphoma, PLoS ONE, vol.13, 2018.

J. Coy, A. Caldwell, L. Chow, A. Guth, and S. Dow, PD-1 expression by canine T cells and functional effects of PD-1 blockade, Vet. Comp. Oncol, vol.15, pp.1487-1502, 2017.

, Genes, vol.10, 2019.

G. Hartley, E. Faulhaber, A. Caldwell, J. Coy, J. Kurihara et al., Immune regulation of canine tumour and macrophage PD-L1 expression, Vet. Comp. Oncol, vol.15, pp.534-549, 2017.

N. Maekawa, S. Konnai, R. Ikebuchi, T. Okagawa, M. Adachi et al., Expression of PD-L1 on canine tumor cells and enhancement of IFN-? production from tumor-infiltrating cells by PD-L1 blockade, PLoS ONE, vol.9, 2014.

N. Maekawa, S. Konnai, S. Takagi, Y. Kagawa, T. Okagawa et al., A canine chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting PD-L1 and its clinical efficacy in canine oral malignant melanoma or undifferentiated sarcoma

F. S. Hodi, C. L. Corless, A. Giobbie-hurder, J. A. Fletcher, M. Zhu et al., Imatinib for Melanomas Harboring Mutationally Activated or Amplified KIT Arising on Mucosal, Acral, and Chronically Sun-Damaged Skin, J. Clin. Oncol, vol.31, pp.3182-3190, 2013.

K. Ito, M. Kobayashi, S. Kuroki, Y. Sasaki, T. Iwata et al., The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib inhibits the growth of canine malignant melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo, Vet. J, vol.198, pp.577-582, 2013.

B. A. Valentine, Survey of equine cutaneous neoplasia in the Pacific Northwest, J. Vet. Diagn. Investig, vol.18, pp.123-126, 2006.

G. Rosengren-pielberg, A. Golovko, E. Sundström, I. Curik, J. Lennartsson et al., A cis-acting regulatory mutation causes premature hair graying and susceptibility to melanoma in the horse, Nat. Genet, vol.40, pp.1004-1009, 2008.

E. Sundström, F. Imsland, S. Mikko, C. Wade, S. Sigurdsson et al.,

J. G. Rushton, R. Ertl, D. Klein, and B. Nell, Mutation analysis and gene expression profiling of ocular melanomas in cats, Vet. Comp. Oncol, vol.15, pp.1403-1416, 2017.

G. Chamel, J. Abadie, O. Albaric, S. Labrut, F. Ponce et al., Non-ocular melanomas in cats: A retrospective study of 30 cases, J. Feline Med. Surg, vol.19, pp.351-357, 2017.

F. Rambow, G. Piton, S. Bouet, J. Leplat, S. Baulande et al., Gene expression signature for spontaneous cancer regression in melanoma pigs, Neoplasia, vol.10, pp.714-726, 2008.

E. Bourneuf, J. Estellé, A. Blin, F. Créchet, . Del-pilar et al., New susceptibility loci for cutaneous melanoma risk and progression revealed using a porcine model, Oncotarget, vol.9, pp.27682-27697, 2018.

I. Gordon, M. Paoloni, C. Mazcko, and C. Khanna, The Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium: Using spontaneously occurring cancers in dogs to inform the cancer drug development pathway, PLoS Med, 2009.

A. K. Leblanc, M. Breen, P. Choyke, M. Dewhirst, T. M. Fan et al., Perspectives from man's best friend: National Academy of Medicine's Workshop on Comparative Oncology, Sci. Transl. Med, vol.8, 2016.

, This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI