T. Arfianti, S. Wilson, and M. J. Costello, Progress in the discovery of amphipod crustaceans, PeerJ, vol.6, p.5187, 2018.

T. Aspin, K. Khamis, T. J. Matthews, A. M. Milner, M. J. O'callaghan et al., Extreme drought pushes stream invertebrate communities over functional thresholds, Glob Change Biol, vol.25, pp.230-244, 2019.

K. Ayati, S. Dhaouadi, E. Mahmoudi, and C. Piscart, Two new species of gammarid amphipods from tunisian fresh waters (amphipoda, Gammaridae), Crustaceana, vol.91, pp.1327-1345, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01935096

E. V. Balian, H. Segers, C. Lévêque, and K. Martens, An introduction to the Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment (FADA) project, Hydrobiologia, vol.595, pp.3-8, 2008.

J. L. Barnard and C. M. Barnard, Freshwater amphipoda of the world, 1983.

T. Caro, J. Darwin, T. Forrester, C. Ledoux-bloom, and C. Wells, Conservation in the Anthropocene, Conserv Biol, vol.26, pp.185-188, 2012.

S. Carranza, D. J. Harris, E. N. Arnold, V. Batista, and J. De-la-vega, Phylogeography of the lacertid lizard, Psammodromus algirus, in Iberia and across the Strait of Gibraltar, J Biogeogr, vol.33, pp.1279-1288, 2006.

A. Khaoula, Ann. Limnol. -Int. J. Lim, vol.55, p.13, 2019.

E. Chevreux, Gammarus simoni, nov. sp., amphipode des eaux douces d'Algérie et de Tunisie, Bull Soc Zool Fr, vol.19, pp.171-176, 1894.

É. Chevreux and L. Fage, Faune de France n°9, 1925.

D. Dudgeon, The ecology of tropical asian rivers and streams in relation to biodiversity conservation, Annu Rev Ecol Syst, vol.31, pp.239-263, 2000.

F. Fadil and M. Dakki, Remarques sur la présence du genre Gammarus (Crustacés amphipodes) au Maroc, avec description d'une nouvelle espèce, Beaufortia, vol.51, pp.153-161, 2001.

F. Fadil and M. Dakki, A new species of Echinogammarus Stebbing, 1899 (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from Moroccan freshwaters, Beaufortia, vol.53, pp.53-59, 2003.

F. Fadil and M. Dakki, Deux espèces nouvelles du genre Gammarus (Crustacés, Amphipodes) du Maroc À PDF, pp.13-24, 2006.

F. Fadil, K. Fadil, and M. Dakki, A new species of Chaetogammarus Martynov, 1925 (Amphipoda) from Moroccan fresh waters, including notes on the Moroccan Epigean Gammaridae, Crustaceana, vol.82, pp.969-979, 2009.

H. Gauthier, Recherches sur la faune des eaux continentales de l'Algérie et de la Tunisie, vol.419, 1928.

T. Guy-haim, N. Simon-blecher, A. Frumkin, I. Naaman, and Y. Achituv, Multiple transgressions and slow evolution shape the phylogeographic pattern of the blind cave-dwelling shrimp Typhlocaris, PeerJ, vol.6, p.5268, 2018.

J. C. Habel, P. Dieker, and T. Schmitt, Biogeographical connections between the Maghreb and the Mediterranean peninsulas of southern Europe, Biol J Linn Soc, vol.98, pp.693-703, 2009.

J. C. Habel, D. Rödder, S. Stefano, M. Meyer, and T. Schmitt, Strong genetic cohesiveness between Italy and North Africa in four butterfly species, Biol J Linn Soc, vol.99, pp.818-830, 2010.

Z. Hou, B. Sket, C. Fi-ser, and S. Li, Eocene habitat shift from saline to freshwater promoted Tethyan amphipod diversification, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.108, pp.14533-14538, 2011.

Z. Hou and B. Sket, A review of Gammaridae (Crustacea: Amphipoda): the family extent, its evolutionary history, and taxonomic redefinition of genera, Zool J Linn Soc, vol.176, pp.323-348, 2016.

K. J. Hsü, L. Montadert, D. Bernoulli, M. B. Cita, A. Erickson et al., History of the Mediterranean salinity crisis, Nature, vol.267, p.399, 1977.

M. Husemann, T. Schmitt, F. E. Zachos, W. Ulrich, and J. C. Habel, Palaearctic biogeography revisited: evidence for the existence of a North African refugium for Western Palaearctic biota, J. Biogeogr, vol.41, pp.81-94, 2014.

G. Karaman and S. Pinkster, Freshwater gammarus species from Europe, North-Africa and adjacent regions of Asia (crustaceaAmphipoda). Part II. Gammarus-Roeseli-group and related species, Bijdr Tot Dierkd, vol.47, pp.165-196, 1977.

G. Karaman and S. Pinkster, Fresh-water gammarus species from Europe, North-Africa and adjacent regions of Asia (crustacea, Amphipoda), Bijdr Tot Dierkd, vol.57, pp.207-260, 1987.

G. S. Karaman, Fauna d'Italia. Amphipoda di acqua dolce 31, p.31, 1993.

S. Karaman, Rivulogammarus gauthieri n. sp., nouvel Amphipode dulçaquicole d'Algérie, Bull Société Hist Nat Afr Nord, vol.26, pp.47-53, 1935.

R. T. Kayo, P. Marmonier, S. Togouet, M. Nola, and C. Piscart, An annotated checklist of freshwater stygobiotic crustaceans of Africa and Madagascar, Crustaceana, vol.85, pp.1613-1631, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00750200

W. Krijgsman, F. J. Hilgen, I. Raffi, F. J. Sierro, and D. S. Wilson, Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis, Nature, vol.400, p.652, 1999.

J. R. Malcolm, C. Liu, R. P. Neilson, L. Hansen, and L. Hannah, Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots, Conserv Biol J Soc Conserv Biol, vol.20, pp.538-548, 2006.

J. E. Meulenkamp and W. Sissingh, Tertiary palaeogeography and tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Northern and Southern PeriTethys platforms and the intermediate domains of the AfricanEurasian convergent plate boundary zone, Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, vol.196, pp.209-228, 2003.

N. Myers, R. A. Mittermeier, C. G. Mittermeier, G. Da-fonseca, and K. J. , Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities, Nature, vol.403, p.853, 2000.

S. Navel, F. Mermillod-blondin, B. Montuelle, E. Chauvet, L. Simon et al., Interactions between fauna and sediment control the breakdown of plant matter in river sediments, Freshw Biol, vol.55, pp.753-766, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00481300

M. A. Palmer, C. M. Swan, K. Nelson, P. Silver, and R. Alvestad, Streambed landscapes: evidence that stream invertebrates respond to the type and spatial arrangement of patches, Landsc Ecol, vol.15, pp.563-576, 2000.

M. C. Peel, B. L. Finlayson, and T. A. Mcmahon, Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol Earth Syst Sci, vol.11, pp.1633-1644, 2007.

H. M. Pereira, P. W. Leadley, V. Proença, R. Alkemade, J. Scharlemann et al., Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century, Science, vol.330, pp.1496-1501, 2010.

S. Pinkster, Members of the Gammarus pulex-group (Crustacea À Amphipoda) from North Africa and Spain, with description of a new species from Morocco, Bull Zool Mus, vol.2, pp.45-52, 1971.

S. Pinkster, A revision of the genus Echinogammarus Stebbing, 1899, with some notes on related genera, 1993.

, Mem Mus Civ Storia Nat Verona

C. Piscart, A. Manach, G. H. Copp, and P. Marmonier, Distribution and microhabitats of native and non-native gammarids (Amphipoda, Crustacea) in Brittany, with particular reference to the endangered endemic sub-species Gammarus duebeni celticus, J Biogeogr, vol.34, pp.524-533, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00229716

C. Piscart, J. Dick, D. Mccrisken, and C. Macneil, Environmental mediation of intraguild predation between the freshwater invader Gammarus pulex and the native G. duebeni celticus, Biol Invasions, vol.11, pp.2141-2145, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00424434

C. Piscart, R. Genoel, S. Doledec, E. Chauvet, and P. Marmonier, Effects of intense agricultural practices on heterotrophic processes in streams, Environ Pollut, vol.157, pp.1011-1018, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00355686

C. Piscart, B. Bergerot, P. Laffaille, and P. Marmonier, Are amphipod invaders a threat to regional biodiversity, Biol Invasions, vol.12, pp.853-863, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00465309

C. Piscart, S. Navel, C. Maazouzi, B. Montuelle, J. Cornut et al., Leaf litter recycling in benthic and hyporheic layers in agricultural streams with different types of land use, Sci Total Environ, vol.409, pp.4373-4380, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00637662

C. Piscart and L. Bollache, Crustacés amphipodes de surface, 2012.

C. Piscart, D. Merzoug, and H. Hafid, A new species of Echinogammarus from Algerian fresh waters, Echinogammarus haraktis N. Sp (peracarida, Amphipoda), Crustaceana, vol.86, pp.1623-1633, 2013.

J. M. Pleguezuelos, J. C. Brito, S. Fahd, M. Feriche, J. A. Mateo et al., Setting conservation priorities for the Moroccan herpetofauna: the utility of regional red lists, Oryx, vol.44, pp.501-508, 2010.

T. Rewicz, M. Rachalewski, and M. Grabowski, First record of Echinogammarus pungens (H. Milne Edwards, 1840) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from Africa with the checklist of North African freshwater gammarids, Mediterr Mar Sci, vol.15, pp.443-448, 2014.

B. Romagny and C. Cudennec, Gestion de l'eau en milieu aride: considérations physiques et sociales pour l'identification des territoires pertinents dans le Sud-Est tunisien, 2006.

, Économie Géographie Polit Droit Sociol

O. E. Sala, S. Chapin, I. Armesto, J. J. Berlow, E. Bloomfield et al., Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100, Science, vol.287, pp.1770-1774, 2000.

A. Schneider, A. Jost, C. Coulon, M. Silvestre, S. Théry et al., Global-scale river network extraction based on highresolution topography and constrained by lithology, climate, slope, and observed drainage density, Geophys Res Lett, vol.44, pp.2773-2781, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01496152

B. Sket and Z. Hou, Family Gammaridae (Crustacea: Amphipoda), mainly its Echinogammarus clade in SW Europe. Further elucidation of its phylogeny and taxonomy, Acta Biol Slovenica, vol.61, pp.93-102, 2018.

M. Stöck, A. Sicilia, N. M. Belfiore, D. Buckley, L. Brutto et al., Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives, BMC Evol Biol, vol.8, p.56, 2008.

M. Stöck, C. Dufresnes, S. N. Litvinchuk, P. Lymberakis, S. Biollay et al., Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group), Mol Phylogenet Evol, vol.65, pp.1-9, 2012.

J. M. Tierno-de-figueroa, M. J. López-rodríguez, S. Fenoglio, P. Sánchez-castillo, and R. Fochetti, Freshwater biodiversity in the rivers of the Mediterranean Basin, Hydrobiologia, vol.719, pp.137-186, 2013.

. Worms, WoRMS À World Register of Marine Species, 2019.

A. Khaoula, H. Ramzi, K. Hichem, D. Sonia, C. P. Ezzeddine et al., Origin, diversity and distribution of freshwater epigean amphipods in Maghreb, Ann. Limnol. -Int. J. Lim, vol.55, p.13, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02277433