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Provenance des parures en variscite du néolithique européen : élaboration d’un modèle chimiométrique

Abstract : The discovery in Europe of callaïs ornaments, a green mineral, in Neolithic graves during the nineteenth century, raised the question of their origin. PIXE analysis program of about 15 years has been set up to answer this question on the basis of objective data. The comprehensive inventory of west European deposits described their main geological, archaeological and geographical location relative to the sites allows a first selection on their operating potential in the Neolithic. A large representative sample of the main deposits has been collected and the samples analyzed by PIXE using an external beam to determine their elemental chemical analysis relatively quickly and non-destructively. The concentrations of major elements allow us to know the mineralogical nature of the veins or nodules (variscite and / or turquoise). The spectrum of minor and trace elements shows intrinsic variations specific to each deposit. The iron content, vanadium, chromium, arsenic, silicon, calcium, zirconium, uranium, their absolute changes and those of their concentration ratio are particularly relevant for discriminating five main potential geological sources. A chemometric model based on these compositional variations was developed. This model allows us to determine the source of an archaeological set of variscite adornment among the 5 largest European variscite deposits could have been exploited by humans during the Neolithic groups living in Western Europe.
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Guirec Querré, Thomas Calligaro, Serge Cassen, Marie-Pierre Dabard, Salvador Domínguez-Bella. Provenance des parures en variscite du néolithique européen : élaboration d’un modèle chimiométrique. Guirec Querré, Serge Cassen et Emmanuelle Vigier. La parure en callaïs du Néolithique européen, Archaeopress, pp.105-128, 2019, 978-1-78969-280-8. ⟨10.32028/9781789692808-9⟩. ⟨hal-02350764⟩

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