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Origine des bijoux néolithiques en callaïs de l'ouest de la France

Abstract : 747 beads and pendants in callaïs of the 841 currently known from 27 Neolithic occupations in the northern half of France were analyzed by PIXE to determine their mineralogical nature and provenance. The great majority of these ornaments are concentrated around the Gulf of Morbihan, in the region of Carnac (56). The concentrations of aluminum and phosphorus constituting the two major elements of variscite were detected in the most of the cases. Only five beads, notably two from the tumulus Saint Michel and one from the Mané Lud also have high contents of copper, which correspond to turquoise. The use of the chemometric model developed on the basis of PIXE analyses of the main Western European deposits, according to a set of discriminating geochemical criteria, makes it possible, in 22 cases, to determine the origin of the variscite finery sets. The results confirm that no objects come from Pannecé, the only French deposit, nor from the Neolithic Can Tintorer mines in the region of Barcelona. All the beads and pendants only come from the two Iberian deposits facing the Atlantic coast: Encinasola (Huelva) in the Southwest and Palazuelo (Zamora) in the Northwest. The study of the chronology of supplies shows that the oldest beads and pendants come from Encinasola and that from 4000-4300 years BC shows an about face and that the elements of variscite ornament come from Palazuelo. During the Neolithic era, transfers over long distances, reaching nearly 2000 kilometers, occurred on the Atlantic coast, and the transfer networks that evolved along the 3 millennia concerned by this type of furniture.
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Guirec Querré, Thomas Calligaro, Serge Cassen. Origine des bijoux néolithiques en callaïs de l'ouest de la France. Guirec Querré, Serge Cassen et Emmanuelle Vigier. La parure en callaïs du Néolithique européen, Archaeopress, pp.129-199, 2019, 978-1-78969-280-8. ⟨10.32028/9781789692808-10⟩. ⟨hal-02351654⟩

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