, WHO | Global status report on alcohol and health, 2018.

S. Imtiaz, K. D. Shield, M. Roerecke, A. V. Samokhvalov, K. Lönnroth et al., Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for tuberculosis: meta-analyses and burden of disease, European Respiratory Journal, vol.50, p.1700216, 2017.

E. Simou, J. Britton, and J. Leonardi-bee, Alcohol and the risk of pneumonia: a systematic review and metaanalysis, BMJ Open, vol.8, p.22344, 2018.

J. Rehm, C. Probst, K. D. Shield, and P. A. Shuper, Does alcohol use have a causal effect on HIV incidence and disease progression? A review of the literature and a modeling strategy for quantifying the effect, Population Health Metrics, vol.15, 2017.

C. S. Hendershot, S. A. Stoner, D. W. Pantalone, and J. M. Simoni, Alcohol Use and Antiretroviral Adherence: Review and Meta-Analysis: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.52, pp.180-202, 2009.

F. P. Rivara, T. D. Koepsell, G. J. Jurkovich, J. G. Gurney, and R. Soderberg, The effects of alcohol abuse on readmission for trauma, JAMA, vol.270, pp.1962-1966, 1993.

J. A. Haagsma, N. Graetz, I. Bolliger, M. Naghavi, H. Higashi et al., The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013, Injury Prevention, vol.22, pp.3-18, 2016.

W. Haddon, Advances in the epidemiology of injuries as a basis for public policy, Public Health Rep, vol.95, pp.411-432, 1980.

S. I. Hay, A. A. Abajobir, K. H. Abate, C. Abbafati, K. M. Abbas et al., Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study, The Lancet, vol.390, pp.1260-344, 2016.

H. A. Whiteford, L. Degenhardt, J. Rehm, A. J. Baxter, A. J. Ferrari et al., Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study, The Lancet, vol.382, issue.13, pp.61611-61617, 2010.

J. Belleville, The French paradox: possible involvement of ethanol in the protective effect against cardiovascular diseases, Nutrition, vol.18, pp.173-180, 2002.

C. M. Albert, J. E. Manson, N. R. Cook, U. A. Ajani, J. M. Gaziano et al., Moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of sudden cardiac death among US male physicians, Circulation, vol.100, pp.944-50, 1999.

P. E. Ronksley, S. E. Brien, B. J. Turner, K. J. Mukamal, and W. A. Ghali, Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMJ, vol.342, p.671, 2011.

C. Knott, S. Bell, and A. Britton, Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-analysis of More Than 1.9 Million Individuals From 38 Observational Studies, Diabetes Care, vol.38, pp.1804-1816, 2015.

I. C. Schrieks, A. Heil, H. Hendriks, K. J. Mukamal, and J. Beulens, The effect of alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity and glycemic status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies, Diabetes Care, vol.38, pp.723-755, 2015.

M. G. Griswold, N. Fullman, C. Hawley, N. Arian, S. Zimsen et al., Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study, The Lancet, vol.392, issue.18, pp.31310-31312, 2016.

Y. Tizabi, B. Getachew, C. L. Ferguson, A. B. Csoka, K. M. Thompson et al., High Alcohol: Central Benefits Vs, Detriments. Neurotoxicity Research, 2018.

S. Yasar, Relation between alcohol consumption in midlife and dementia in late life, BMJ, vol.2018, p.3164

R. Peters, J. Peters, J. Warner, N. Beckett, and C. Bulpitt, Alcohol, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly: a systematic review, Age and Ageing, vol.37, pp.505-517, 2008.

A. Paganini-hill, C. H. Kawas, and M. M. Corrada, Lifestyle Factors and Dementia in the Oldest-old: The 90+ Study, Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, vol.30, pp.21-27, 2016.

J. R. Scott, A. L. Hassett, A. D. Schrepf, C. M. Brummett, R. E. Harris et al., Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Associated with Reduced Pain and Fibromyalgia Symptoms in Chronic Pain Patients, Pain Medicine, 2018.

I. Sánchez-sellero, E. San-román-rodríguez, S. Santos-pérez, M. Rossi-izquierdo, and A. Soto-varela, Alcohol consumption in Menière's disease patients, Nutritional Neuroscience, vol.2018, pp.1-7

T. L. Holbrook and E. Barrett-connor, A prospective study of alcohol consumption and bone mineral density, BMJ, vol.306, pp.1506-1515, 1993.

R. M. Angus, P. N. Sambrook, N. A. Pocock, and J. A. Eisman, Dietary intake and bone mineral density, Bone Miner, vol.4, pp.265-77, 1988.

D. T. Felson, Y. Zhang, M. T. Hannan, W. B. Kannel, and D. P. Kiel, Alcohol intake and bone mineral density in elderly men and women. The Framingham Study, Am J Epidemiol, vol.142, pp.485-92, 1995.

O. Ganry, C. Baudoin, and P. Fardellone, Effect of alcohol intake on bone mineral density in elderly women: The EPIDOS Study. Epidémiologie de l'Ostéoporose, Am J Epidemiol, vol.151, pp.773-80, 2000.

D. Di-giuseppe, L. Alfredsson, M. Bottai, J. Askling, and A. Wolk, Long term alcohol intake and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women: a population based cohort study, BMJ, vol.345, p.4230, 2012.

Z. Jin, C. Xiang, Q. Cai, X. Wei, and J. He, Alcohol consumption as a preventive factor for developing rheumatoid arthritis: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol.73, pp.1962-1969, 2014.

S. Rajakulendran, K. Gadsby, and C. Deighton, Rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol, leflunomide and methotrexate. Can changes to the BSR guidelines for leflunomide and methotrexate on alcohol consumption be justified?, Musculoskeletal Care, vol.6, pp.233-279, 2008.

I. Jonsson, M. Verdrengh, M. Brisslert, S. Lindblad, M. Bokarewa et al., Ethanol prevents development of destructive arthritis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.104, pp.258-63, 2007.

C. J. Hardy, B. P. Palmer, K. R. Muir, A. J. Sutton, and R. J. Powell, Smoking history, alcohol consumption, and systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-control study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol.57, pp.451-456, 1998.

C. Nagata, S. Fujita, H. Iwata, Y. Kurosawa, K. Kobayashi et al., Systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-control epidemiologic study in Japan, Int J Dermatol, vol.34, pp.333-340, 1995.

A. Carle, I. B. Pedersen, N. Knudsen, H. Perrild, L. Ovesen et al., Moderate alcohol consumption may protect against overt autoimmune hypothyroidism: a population-based case-control study, European Journal of Endocrinology, vol.167, pp.483-90, 2012.

A. Carlé, I. Bülow-pedersen, N. Knudsen, H. Perrild, L. Ovesen et al., Graves? hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention, Clinical Endocrinology, vol.79, pp.111-120, 2013.

E. Mellanby, . Discussion, . The, . Of, . As-a-therapeutic et al., Proc R Soc Med, vol.13, pp.36-43, 1920.

A. Fermie, Alcohol as a Therapeutic Agent, Ind Med Gaz, vol.29, p.199, 1894.

, THE LANCET Special Analytical Commission ON BRANDY. The Lancet, vol.160, pp.1502-1520, 1902.

, Reports and Analyses and Descriptions of New Inventions, in Medicine, Surgery, Dietetics, and the Allied Sciences, vol.2, pp.885-891, 1888.

H. Guly, Medicinal brandy, Resuscitation, vol.82, pp.951-955, 2011.

L. Pasteur, Études sur le vin : Ses maladies, causes qui les provoquent, procédés nouveaux pour le conserver et le vieillir, 1866.

J. M. Appel, Physicians are not Bootleggers": The Short, Peculiar Life of the Medicinal Alcohol Movement, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol.82, pp.355-86, 2008.

G. Mcdonnell and A. D. Russell, Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance, Clin Microbiol Rev, vol.12, pp.147-79, 1999.

, Centre d'appui pour la prévention des infections associées aux soins. Utilisation des antiseptiques en établissement médico-social, 2016.

. Vidal-hoptimal, CURETHYL (éthanol), Monographie VIDAL, 2018.

B. Hodges and J. E. Mazur, Intravenous Ethanol for the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients, Pharmacotherapy, vol.24, pp.1578-85, 2004.

R. Dillard, T. Welch, S. Abdul-hamed, J. Kesey, and S. Dissanaike, Ethanol Infusion for Alcohol Withdrawal Prophylaxis Does Not Cause Intoxication. The Southwest Respiratory and Critical Care Chronicles, vol.4, 2016.

D. Dixit, J. Endicott, L. Burry, L. Ramos, S. Yeung et al., Management of Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients, Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, vol.36, pp.797-822, 2016.

A. Mirijello, C. Angelo, A. Ferrulli, G. Vassallo, M. Antonelli et al., Identification and Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome, Drugs, vol.75, pp.353-65, 2015.

D. Jacobsen and K. E. Mcmartin, Antidotes for methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning, J Toxicol Clin Toxicol, vol.35, pp.127-170, 1997.

L. Beatty, R. Green, K. Magee, and P. Zed, A systematic review of ethanol and fomepizole use in toxic alcohol ingestions, Emerg Med Int, p.638057, 2013.

S. Zakharov, D. Pelclova, T. Navratil, J. Belacek, M. Komarc et al., Fomepizole versus ethanol in the treatment of acute methanol poisoning: Comparison of clinical effectiveness in a mass poisoning outbreak, Clinical Toxicology, vol.53, pp.797-806, 2015.

S. J. Rietjens, D. W. De-lange, and J. Meulenbelt, Ethylene glycol or methanol intoxication: which antidote should be used, fomepizole or ethanol?, Neth J Med, vol.72, pp.73-82, 2014.


T. Loh, S. Patel, A. Mirchandani, and M. Eckmann, Brachial Plexus Chemical Neurolysis with Ethanol for Cancer Pain, Case Reports in Medicine, vol.2018, pp.1-3, 2018.

A. Mahli and D. Coskun, Neurolysis for Treatment of Infraorbital Neuropathy, Case Reports in Medicine, vol.2017, pp.1-4, 2017.

M. Brock, C. Frangakis, and C. S. Georgiades, CT-Guided, Percutaneous Ethanol Sympatholysis for Primary Hyperhidrosis, CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol.41, pp.477-82, 2018.

U. Zhou, L. Craig, J. Parekh, and N. , Current Concepts of Neurolysis and Clinical Applications, Journal of The Analgesics, vol.2, pp.16-22, 2015.

E. Viel, J. Pelissier, F. Pellas, C. Boulay, and J. Eledjam, Les traitements locaux de la spasticité : Blocs périphériques des membres pour alcoolisation ou phénolisation neurolytique, Neurochirurgie, vol.49, pp.256-62, 2003.

M. E. Johnson, J. C. Sill, D. L. Brown, T. J. Halsey, and C. B. Uhl, The effect of the neurolytic agent ethanol on cytoplasmic calcium in arterial smooth muscle and endothelium, Reg Anesth, vol.21, pp.6-13, 1996.

A. D. Furlan, P. W. Lui, and A. Mailis, Chemical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain: does it work? Case report and systematic literature review, Clin J Pain, vol.17, pp.327-363, 2001.

D. Koyyalagunta, M. P. Engle, J. Yu, L. Feng, and D. M. Novy, The Effectiveness of Alcohol Versus Phenol Based Splanchnic Nerve Neurolysis for the Treatment of Intra-Abdominal Cancer Pain, Pain Physician, vol.19, pp.281-92, 2016.

W. F. Yakes, J. M. Luethke, S. H. Parker, A. T. Stavros, K. M. Rak et al., Ethanol embolization of vascular malformations, RadioGraphics, vol.10, pp.787-96, 1990.

, Japanese Society of Interventional Radiology. Guidelines for Absolute Ethanol for Use in Vascular Embolization, 2016.

T. Prasetyono and P. Kreshanti, Efficacy of intralesional alcohol injection as alternative and/or complementary treatment of vascular malformations: A systematic review, Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, vol.63, pp.1071-1080, 2010.

L. Su, R. Jia, D. Wang, M. Lv, and F. X. ,

, Absolute Ethanol Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations in the Periorbital Region, CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol.38, pp.632-673, 2015.

X. D. Fan, L. X. Su, J. W. Zheng, L. Z. Zheng, and Z. Y. Zhang, Ethanol Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations of the Mandible, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.30, pp.1178-83, 2009.

Y. S. Do, W. F. Yakes, S. W. Shin, B. Lee, D. Kim et al., Ethanol Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations: Interim Results, Radiology, vol.235, pp.674-82, 2005.

L. Su, D. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Wang, L. Zheng et al., Absolute Ethanol Embolization of Infiltratingdiffuse Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformations in the Head and Neck, European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol.50, pp.114-135, 2015.

L. Z. Zheng, X. D. Fan, J. W. Zheng, and L. X. Su, Ethanol Embolization of Auricular Arteriovenous Malformations: Preliminary Results of 17 Cases

, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.30, pp.1679-84, 2009.

K. Sofue, Y. Arai, K. Shimada, Y. Takeuchi, T. Kobayashi et al., Right portal vein embolization with absolute ethanol in major hepatic resection for hepatobiliary malignancy, British Journal of Surgery, vol.101, pp.1122-1130, 2014.

U. Rimon, M. Duvdevani, A. Garniek, G. Golan, P. Bensaid et al., Ethanol and Polyvinyl Alcohol Mixture for Transcatheter Embolization of Renal Angiomyolipoma, American Journal of Roentgenology, vol.187, pp.762-770, 2006.

Y. Sawada, M. Shimohira, T. Hashizume, R. Sobue, S. Mori et al., Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Renal Angiomyolipoma Using a Micro-balloon Catheter and a Mixture of Ethanol and Lipiodol, CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol.40, pp.1933-1942, 2017.

D. Kalman and E. Varenhorst, The role of arterial embolization in renal cell carcinoma, Scand J Urol Nephrol, vol.33, pp.162-70, 1999.

R. P. Riemsma, M. M. Bala, R. Wolff, and J. Kleijnen, Percutaneous ethanol injection for liver metastases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013.

S. Y. Jeong, J. H. Baek, Y. J. Choi, and J. H. Lee, Ethanol and thermal ablation for malignant thyroid tumours, International Journal of Hyperthermia, vol.2017, pp.1-8

H. Sayhan, S. G. Beyaz, A. M. Ülgen, M. F. Yuce, and Y. Tomak, Long-term Clinical Effects of DiscoGel for Cervical Disc Herniation, Pain Physician, vol.21, pp.71-79, 2018.

D. Cheng, P. Amin, V. Ha, and T. , Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of Cystic Lesions. Seminars in Interventional Radiology, vol.29, pp.295-300, 2012.

S. Jayesh, P. Mehta, M. Cherian, V. Ilayaraja, P. Gupta et al., Efficacy and safety of USG-guided ethanol sclerotherapy in cystic thyroid nodules, Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging, vol.19, p.199, 2009.

K. Moorthy, N. Mihssin, and P. W. Houghton, The management of simple hepatic cysts: sclerotherapy or laparoscopic fenestration, Ann R Coll Surg Engl, vol.83, pp.409-423, 2001.

D. Akinci, O. Akhan, M. Ozmen, B. Gumus, O. Ozkan et al., Long-term results of singlesession percutaneous drainage and ethanol sclerotherapy in simple renal cysts, European Journal of Radiology, vol.54, pp.298-302, 2005.

C. J. Edmonds and M. Tellez, Treatment of thyroid cysts by aspiration and injection of sclerosant, Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), vol.295, p.529, 1987.

H. S. Park, J. H. Baek, Y. J. Choi, and J. H. Lee, Innovative Techniques for Image-Guided Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules: Combined Ethanol and Radiofrequency Ablation, Korean Journal of Radiology, vol.18, p.461, 2017.

A. Subramanian, Alcohol Ablation for Cardiac Arrhythmias: Is it Time to Drown the Arrhythmias?, Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J, vol.12, pp.136-143, 2012.

U. Sigwart, Non-surgical myocardial reduction for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, Lancet, vol.346, pp.211-215, 1995.

M. Kitamura, Y. Kubota, H. Takano, and M. Takayama, Alcohol septal ablation with septal myocardial isolation using the double-balloon method for refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, European Heart Journal, vol.35, pp.241-241, 2014.

A. A. Hagège and M. Desnos, New trends in treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases, vol.102, pp.441-448, 2009.

B. Kreidieh, M. Rodríguez-mañero, A. Schurmann, P. Ibarra-cortez, S. H. Dave et al., Retrograde Coronary Venous Ethanol Infusion for Ablation of Refractory Ventricular Tachycardia, Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol.9, 2016.

F. Sacher, P. Sobieszczyk, U. Tedrow, A. C. Eisenhauer, M. E. Field et al., Transcoronary ethanol ventricular tachycardia ablation in the modern electrophysiology era, Heart Rhythm, vol.5, pp.62-70, 2008.

P. Brugada, H. De-swart, J. L. Smeets, F. W. Bär, and H. J. Wellens, Termination of tachycardias by interrupting blood flow to the arrhythmogenic area, Am J Cardiol, vol.62, pp.90964-90966, 1988.

E. Duncan and R. J. Schilling, Intracoronary ethanol ablation: A novel technique for ablation of ventricular fibrillation, Heart Rhythm, vol.7, pp.1131-1135, 2010.

M. Valderrábano, P. F. Morales, M. Rodríguez-mañero, C. Lloves, P. A. Schurmann et al., The Human Left Atrial Venous Circulation as a Vascular Route for Atrial Pharmacological Therapies, JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology, vol.3, pp.1020-1052, 2017.

M. Tokuda, P. Sobieszczyk, A. C. Eisenhauer, P. Kojodjojo, K. Inada et al.,

, Transcoronary Ethanol Ablation for Recurrent Ventricular Tachycardia After Failed Catheter Ablation: An Update, Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol.4, pp.889-96, 2011.

S. J. Pidot, W. Gao, A. H. Buultjens, I. R. Monk, R. Guerillot et al., Increasing tolerance of hospital Enterococcus faecium to handwash alcohols, Science Translational Medicine, vol.10, p.6115, 2018.

A. I. Cederbaum, Alcohol Metabolism. Clinics in Liver Disease, vol.16, pp.667-85, 2012.