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Reducing blood loss in pediatric craniosynostosis surgery by use of tranexamic acid

Abstract : Introduction - Craniosysnostosis surgical corrections are routine procedures in the pediatric neurosurgical field. However, these procedures result in significant blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic drug, which has demonstrated a significant reduction in perioperative blood loss in many pediatric surgical procedures such as cardiac surgery and scoliosis surgery. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate protocols of TXA use in pediatric craniosynostosis procedures and its effect on intraoperative blood loss and transfusions. Material and methods - A comprehensive literature review of the National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database was performed to identify relevant studies. We included any clinical study reporting on blood loss or blood transfusion for pediatric craniosynostosis surgery with intraoperative use of tranexamic acid, with the following limits: publication date from inception to May 2019; reports in English. Results - Thirteen studies were eligible for our review. Of the 13 studies, 4 were prospective, randomised, double-blind controlled trials, 9 were retrospective studies, tailored as a "before-after" studies, comparing blood loss and transfusion without/with TXA. TXA significantly decreases the number and volume of packed red blood cell transfusions and the rate of transfusion in children undergoing craniosynostosis surgery. Significantly fewer fresh frozen plasma transfusions were required in the TXA groups in 2 randomised studies. Length of stay in hospital was significantly lower with the use of TXA in three studies. Advantages of TXA administration also include an excellent patient tolerance of side effects, ease of administration and low cost. Conclusion - TXA significantly reduces blood loss and the need for transfusions in children undergoing craniosynostosis surgery. TXA administration should be a routine part of strategy to reduce blood loss and limit transfusions in these procedures.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 9, 2019 - 2:12:55 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, December 12, 2019 - 11:28:50 AM
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G Eustache, L Riffaud. Reducing blood loss in pediatric craniosynostosis surgery by use of tranexamic acid. Neurochirurgie, Elsevier Masson, 2019, 65 (5), pp.302-309. ⟨10.1016/j.neuchi.2019.09.020⟩. ⟨hal-02364089⟩

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