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Témoin d'échanges au Néolithique le long de la façade atlantique : la parure en variscite des tombes de l'ouest de la France

Abstract : Callaïs, as it was identified in the nineteenth century by archaeologists and mineralo- gists, is a green mineral that has been used to produce ornamental beads and pendants from the 5th millennium to the third millennium. Archaeological sites where callaïs arte- facts were discovered are mainly located in Western Europe : Iberian Peninsula, South and West of France. The green material generally appeared to be variscite, a hydrated aluminum phosphate. It is now largely accepted that these elements of adornment, most often found in funary contexts, are strong identity markers : the presence of these jewelry reflects the high social status of the deceased within Neolithic human groups. Our research program, initiated in the early 2000s, is focused on these adorn- ments in view to determine their geographical origin on the basis of geoche- mical analyses. Two groups of objects were investigated. First, geological and archaeological samples from all the deposits known in Europe, whether their ancient exploitation is attested or not. The second group consisted of beads and pendants excavated from 50 Neolithic sites mostly in France and some in Spain and Portugal. External-beam PIXE was used to characterize all artifacts and samples by pro- viding simultaneously the concentration of 26 chemical elements without sam- pling. The exploitation of the geochemical database of analyses of about 300 variscite samples allowed to develop an iterative model to assign a pro- bable archaeological origin to the studied sets on the basis of their composition. The analysis of objects from the Armorican peninsula showed that to make these pendants and beads, Neolithic people did not exploit the nearest source of variscite (Pannecé in Loire-Atlantique), but rather those of Iberian Peninsula (Querré et alii, 2013), highlighting thus the circulation of raw materials and finished objects over hundreds of kilometers
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 14, 2020 - 2:31:28 PM
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  • HAL Id : hal-02439061, version 1

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Guirec Querré, Serge Cassen, Thomas Calligaro. Témoin d'échanges au Néolithique le long de la façade atlantique : la parure en variscite des tombes de l'ouest de la France. Nicolas Naudinot Liliane Meignen Didier Binder Guirec Querré. Les systèmes de mobilité de la Préhistoire au Moyen Age. Actes des 35e rencontres internationales d'archéologie et d'histoire d'Antibes, 14-16 octobre 2014, Editions APDCA, pp.403-418, 2015, 9782904110566. ⟨hal-02439061⟩

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