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In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory properties of octyl-β-D-galactofuranoside during Leishmania donovani infection

Abstract : Background - The chemotherapeutic arsenal available to treat visceral leishmaniasis is currently limited, in view of many drawbacks such as high cost, toxicity or emerging resistance. New therapeutic strategies are particularly needed to improve the management and the outcome in immunosuppressed patients. The combination of an immunomodulatory drug to a conventional anti-Leishmania treatment is an emerging concept to reverse the immune bias from Th2 to Th1 response to boost healing and prevent relapses. Methods - Here, immunostimulating and leishmanicidal properties of octyl-β-D-galactofuranose (Galf) were assessed in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HM) and in a murine model, after challenge with Leishmania donovani promastigotes. We recorded parasite loads and expression of various cytokines and immune effectors in HM and mouse organs (liver, spleen, bone marrow), following treatment with free (Galf) and liposomal (L-Galf) formulations. Results - Both treatments significantly reduced parasite proliferation in HM, as well as liver parasite burden in vivo (Galf, P < 0.05). Consistent with in vitro results, we showed that Galf- and L-Galf-treated mice displayed an enhanced Th1 immune response, particularly in the spleen where pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-12 were significantly overexpressed compared to control group. The hepatic recruitment of myeloid cells was also favored by L-Galf treatment as evidenced by the five-fold increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) induction, which was associated with a higher number of MPO-positive cells within granulomas. By contrast, the systemic level of various cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A or IL-27 was drastically reduced at the end of treatment. Conclusions - Overall, these results suggest that Galf could be tested as an adjuvant in combination with current anti-parasitic drugs, to restore an efficient immune response against infection in a model of immunosuppressed mice.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 15, 2020 - 4:25:25 PM
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Hélène Guegan, Kevin Ory, Sorya Belaz, Aurélien Jan, Sarah Dion, et al.. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory properties of octyl-β-D-galactofuranoside during Leishmania donovani infection. Parasites and Vectors, BioMed Central, 2019, 12 (1), pp.600. ⟨10.1186/s13071-019-3858-0⟩. ⟨hal-02441225⟩

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