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The Right Time to Safely Re-Evaluate Empirical Antimicrobial Treatment of Hip or Knee Prosthetic Joint Infections

Abstract : Currently, no guideline provides recommendations on the duration of empirical antimicrobial treatment (EAT) in prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The aim of our study was to describe the time to growth of bacteria involved in PJI, rendering possible decreased duration of EAT. Based on a French multicentre prospective cohort study, culture data from patients with confirmed hip or knee PJI were analysed. For each patient, five samples were processed. Time to positivity was defined as the first positive medium in at least one sample for virulent pathogens and as the first positive medium in at least two samples for commensals. Definitive diagnosis of polymicrobial infections was considered the day the last bacteria were identified. Among the 183 PJIs, including 28 polymicrobial infections, microbiological diagnosis was carried out between Day 1 (D1) and D5 for 96.7% of cases. There was no difference in the average time to positivity between acute and chronic PJI (p = 0.8871). Microbiological diagnosis was given earlier for monomicrobial than for polymicrobial infections (p = 0.0034). When an optimized culture of peroperative samples was carried out, almost all cases of PJI were diagnosed within five days, including polymicrobial infections. EAT can be re-evaluated at D5 according to microbiological documentation.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 26, 2020 - 7:56:26 AM
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Luc Deroche, Pascale Bémer, Anne-Sophie Valentin, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon, Didier Tandé, et al.. The Right Time to Safely Re-Evaluate Empirical Antimicrobial Treatment of Hip or Knee Prosthetic Joint Infections. Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 2019, 8 (12), pp.E2113. ⟨10.3390/jcm8122113⟩. ⟨hal-02442532⟩

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