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Breathing Rate Estimation Using Kalman Smoother with Electrocardiogram and Photoplethysmogram

Abstract : Objective The objective of this paper is to obtain accurate estimation of breathing rate (BR), using only the electrocardiogram (ECG) or the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals, to avoid wearing cumbersome and uncomfortable sensors for direct measurements. Methods Several respiration waveforms are derived from ECG or PPG signals based on amplitude, frequency, and baseline wander modulations. It is, however, difficult to determine their optimal combination for BR estimation due to the noise and patient specificity. We first propose to quantify the quality of modulation waveforms using respiratory quality indices (RQIs). We then present two methods the first automatically selects the modulation signal with highest RQI for BR estimation, and the second tracks the respiration signal using the Kalman smoother to fuse modulation signals with highest RQI. Results These two methods are evaluated on two independent datasets, one benchmark database (DB) with immobilized patients recordings and the second with those performing daily activities. Our results outperform existing methods in the literature in both the cases. Conclusion Experimental results show that the RQIs coupled with a fusion algorithm increases the accuracy for BR estimations in dealing with derived modulation signals. Significance This work describes a robust Kalman Smoother method applicable in multiple clinical contexts to improve breathing rate estimation from data fusion. © 1964-2012 IEEE.
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Contributor : Laurent Jonchère <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, April 7, 2020 - 12:17:47 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, August 26, 2020 - 3:50:16 PM



S. Khreis, D. Ge, Hala Abdul Rahman, G. Carrault. Breathing Rate Estimation Using Kalman Smoother with Electrocardiogram and Photoplethysmogram. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020, 67 (3), pp.893-904. ⟨10.1109/TBME.2019.2923448⟩. ⟨hal-02534925⟩



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