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Sciadonic acid derived from pine nuts as a food component to reduce plasma triglycerides by inhibiting the rat hepatic Δ9-desaturase

Frédérique Pédrono 1 Nathalie Boulier-Monthéan 1 Françoise Boissel 1 Jordane Ossemond 1 Roselyne Viel 2 Alain Fautrel 2 Justine Marchix 3 Didier Dupont 1
2 H2P2 - H2P2 - Histo Pathologie Hight Precision
UR1 - Université de Rennes 1, Biosit : Biologie - Santé - Innovation Technologique - Structure Fédérative de Recherche en Biologie et Santé de Rennes
Abstract : Sciadonic acid (Scia) is a Δ5-olefinic fatty acid that is particularly abundant in edible pine seeds and that exhibits an unusual polymethylene-interrupted structure. Earlier studies suggested that Scia inhibited the in vitro expression and activity of the Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1), the hepatic Δ9-desaturase involved in the formation of mono-unsaturated fatty acids. To confirm this hypothesis, rats were given 10% Scia in diets balanced out with n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. In those animals receiving the Scia supplement, monoene synthesis in the liver was reduced, which was partly attributed to the inhibition of SCD1 expression. As a consequence, the presence of Scia induced a 50% decrease in triglycerides in blood plasma due to a reduced level of VLDL-secreted triglycerides from the liver. In non-fasting conditions, results showed that Scia-induced inhibition of SCD1 led to a decrease in the proportions of 161n-7 and 181n-7 in the liver without impacting on the level of 181n-9, suggesting that only triglycerides with neosynthesized monoenes are marked out for release. In conclusion, this in vivo study confirms that Scia highly inhibits SCD1 expression and activity. The work was performed on normo-triglyceride rats over six weeks, suggesting promising effects on hyper-triglyceridemic models.
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Frédérique Pédrono, Nathalie Boulier-Monthéan, Françoise Boissel, Jordane Ossemond, Roselyne Viel, et al.. Sciadonic acid derived from pine nuts as a food component to reduce plasma triglycerides by inhibiting the rat hepatic Δ9-desaturase. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2020, 10 (1), pp.6223. ⟨10.1038/s41598-020-63301-3⟩. ⟨hal-02564987⟩

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