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Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with increased severity of rhinitis in 2 European cohorts

Emilie Burte 1, 2, 3 Bénédicte Leynaert 4 Alessandro Marcon 1, 5 Jean Bousquet 1, 6, 7 Meriem Benmerad 8 Roberto Bono 9 Anne-Elie Carsin 2, 3 Kees de Hoogh 10 Bertil Forsberg 11 Frederic Gormand 12 Joachim Heinrich 13 Jocelyne Just 14 Mark Nieuwenhuijsen 2, 3, 15 Isabelle Pin 16, 8 Morgane Stempfelet 17 Jordi Sunyer 3, 15, 2 Simona Villani 18 Nino Kunzli 10 Valérie Siroux 8 Deborah Jarvis 19 Rachel Nadif 1 Bénédicte Jacquemin 1, 3, 15, * 
Abstract : Background Very few studies have examined the association between long-term outdoor air pollution and rhinitis severity in adults. Objective We sought to assess the cross-sectional association between individual long-term exposure to air pollution and severity of rhinitis. Methods Participants with rhinitis from 2 multicenter European cohorts (Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment on Asthma and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey) were included. Annual exposure to NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and PMcoarse (calculated by subtracting PM2.5 from PM10) was estimated using land-use regression models derived from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project, at the participants' residential address. The score of rhinitis severity (range, 0-12), based on intensity of disturbance due to symptoms reported by questionnaire, was categorized into low (reference), mild, moderate, and high severity. Polytomous logistic regression models with a random intercept for city were used. Results A total of 1408 adults with rhinitis (mean age, 52 years; 46% men, 81% from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey) were included. The median (1st quartile-3rd quartile) score of rhinitis severity was 4 (2-6). Higher exposure to PM10 was associated with higher rhinitis severity (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] for a 10 mu g/m(3) increase in PM10 for mild 1.20 [0.88-1.64], moderate 1.53 [1.07-2.19], and high severity 1.72 [1.23-2.41]). Similar results were found for PM2.5. Higher exposure to NO2 was associated with an increased severity of rhinitis, with similar adjusted odds ratios whatever the level of severity. Adjusted odds ratios were higher among participants without allergic sensitization than among those with, but interaction was found only for NO2. Conclusions People with rhinitis who live in areas with higher levels of pollution are more likely to report more severe nasal symptoms. Further work is required to elucidate the mechanisms of this association.
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Emilie Burte, Bénédicte Leynaert, Alessandro Marcon, Jean Bousquet, Meriem Benmerad, et al.. Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with increased severity of rhinitis in 2 European cohorts. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Elsevier, 2020, 145 (3), pp.834-+. ⟨10.1016/j.jaci.2019.11.040⟩. ⟨hal-02565460⟩

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