, Figure 2?source data 4. TE family enrichments for TE insertion and TE deletion variants.

, Table 3.3. Programmed decrease in CPA above USD 20 million, % for TE-SL99 or 1.48 % for TE-SL100

M. Togo, S. Kimura, and T. Mogami, Recoiled-oxygen-free processing for 1.5 nm SiON gate-dielectric in sub-100-nm CMOS technology, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol.49, issue.7, pp.1165-1171, 2002.

, Figure 2?figure supplement 9. TE family enrichments and depletions for TE insertions and TE deletions., 101-102 or a triazole in 103

. Oppositely, disruption of the conjugation by a meta-linkage in 102, instead of the para-linkage in 101, induces a strong decrease of the device performance with an EQE lower than 1 % References

A. Bernanose, M. Comte, and P. Vouaux, Stabilisation de la phosphorescence des adsorbats organiques fluorescents, Journal de Chimie Physique, vol.51, pp.400-401, 1954.

J. Bernanose and . Chim, Sur le mécanisme de l?électroluminescence organique, Journal de Chimie Physique, vol.52, pp.396-400, 1955.

M. Pope, H. P. Kallmann, and P. Magnante, Electroluminescence in Organic Crystals, The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.38, issue.8, pp.2042-2043, 1963.

P. S. Vincett, W. A. Barlow, R. A. Hann, and G. G. Roberts, Electrical conduction and low voltage blue electroluminescence in vacuum-deposited organic films, Thin Solid Films, vol.94, issue.2, pp.171-183, 1982.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, Organic electroluminescent diodes, Applied Physics Letters, vol.51, issue.12, pp.913-915, 1987.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay et al., Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers, Nature, vol.347, issue.6293, pp.539-541, 1990.

R. Mertens, The OLED Handbook-A guide to OLED technology, Industry & Market, 2019.

C. S. Hung, C. H. Chen, S. Wu, and P. S. Hung, Exploring the Attractive Attributes and Consumer Preferences for Dream Cake, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol.926, p.012030, 2020.

C. H. Lee, ;. X. Chen, X. Yang, G. Xu, and . Zhou, J. Disp. Technol, vol.1, p.913, 2005.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.90, issue.10, pp.5048-5051, 2001.

Y. Im, S. Y. Byun, J. H. Kim, D. R. Lee, C. S. Oh et al., Recent Progress in High-Efficiency Blue-Light-Emitting Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes, Advanced Functional Materials, vol.27, issue.13, p.1603007, 2017.

M. R. Maciejczyk, S. Zhang, G. J. Hedley, N. Robertson, I. D. Samuel et al., Adv. Funct. Mater, vol.29, p.1014, 2018.

J. Lakowicz and R. , Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2006.

L. Zhao, S. Wang, S. Shao, J. Ding, L. Wang et al., Stable and efficient deep-blue terfluorenes functionalized with carbazole dendrons for solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol.3, issue.34, pp.8895-8903, 2015.

C. Wu, Y. Lin, K. Wong, R. Chen, and Y. Chien, Efficient Organic Blue-Light-Emitting Devices with Double Confinement on Terfluorenes with Ambipolar Carrier Transport Properties, Advanced Materials, vol.16, issue.1, pp.61-65, 2004.

D. Xia, C. Duan, S. Liu, D. Ding, M. Baumgarten et al., Oligofluorene with multiple spiro-connections: its and their use in blue and white OLEDs, New Journal of Chemistry, vol.43, issue.9, pp.3788-3792, 2019.

C. Poriel, J. Liang, J. Rault-berthelot, F. Barrière, N. Cocherel et al., Dispirofluorene?Indenofluorene Derivatives as New Building Blocks for Blue Organic Electroluminescent Devices and Electroactive Polymers, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.13, issue.36, pp.10055-10069, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00283671

C. Poriel, J. Rault-berthelot, D. Thirion, F. Barrière, and L. Vignau, Blue Emitting 3 ?-2 Spiro Terfluorene-Indenofluorene Isomers: A Structure-Properties Relationship Study, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.17, issue.50, pp.14031-14046, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00658383

N. Cocherel, C. Poriel, J. Rault-berthelot, F. Barrière, N. Audebrand et al., New 3?-2Spiro Ladder-Type Phenylene Materials: Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties and Applications in OLEDs, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.14, issue.36, pp.11328-11342, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00399707

F. Liu, W. Lai, C. Tang, H. Wu, Q. Chen et al., Synthesis and Characterization of Pyrene-Centered Starburst Oligofluorenes, Macromolecular Rapid Communications, vol.29, issue.8, pp.659-664, 2008.

B. Kaur, D. Moghe, A. Dey, D. Kabra, and J. Jacob, Solution processable truxene based blue emitters: Synthesis, characterization and electroluminescence studies, Journal of Luminescence, vol.196, pp.511-519, 2018.

Y. Zhou, L. Ding, L. Xiang, and J. Pei, Covalent Functionalized Conjugated Dendrimers for Organic Light Emitting Diodes: Synthesis, Characterization, and the Deep Blue Electroluminescence, Australian Journal of Chemistry, vol.64, issue.2, p.160, 2011.

J. F. Tannaci, M. Noji, J. Mcbee, and T. D. Tilley, 9,10-Dichlorooctafluoroanthracene as a Building Block for n-Type Organic Semiconductors, The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol.72, issue.15, pp.5567-5573, 2007.

K. Wong, Y. Chien, R. Chen, C. Wang, Y. Lin et al.,

C. Hsieh, C. H. Wu, Y. O. Chou, G. Su, S. Lee et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc, vol.124, p.11576, 2002.

Y. Jiang, Y. Lu, Y. Cui, Q. Zhou, Y. Ma et al., Synthesis of Giant Rigid ?-Conjugated Dendrimers, Organic Letters, vol.9, issue.22, pp.4539-4542, 2007.

Y. Jiang, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Cui, J. Wang et al., ?-Conjugated Dendrimers as Stable Pure-Blue Emissive Materials: Photophysical, Electrochemical, and Electroluminescent Properties, Chemistry - An Asian Journal, vol.4, issue.4, pp.548-553, 2009.

G. Klaerner and R. D. Miller, Thin Solid Films, vol.31, p.76, 1998.

J. Rault-berthelot, Curr. Topics Electrochem, vol.10, p.265, 2004.

A. G. Macdiarmid-;-b)-a, K. L. Grimsdale, R. E. Chan, P. G. Martin, A. B. Jokisz et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, vol.40, p.897, 2001.

D. L. Horrocks, W. G. Brown-;-b, ). L. Sicard, C. Quinton, J. Peltier et al., Chem. Phys. Lett, vol.5, p.7719, 1970.

N. Fomina, S. E. Bradforth, and T. E. Hogen-esch, Synthesis and Spectroscopy of Poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene-2,7-diyl-co-9,9-dihexylfluorene-3,6-diyl)s and Their Model Oligomers, Macromolecules, vol.42, issue.17, pp.6440-6447, 2009.

M. Belletête, M. Ranger, S. Beaupré, M. Leclerc, and G. Durocher, Conformational, optical and photophysical properties of a substituted terfluorene isolated and incorporated in a polyester, Chemical Physics Letters, vol.316, issue.1-2, pp.101-107, 2000.

C. Poriel, N. Cocherel, J. Rault-berthelot, L. Vignau, and O. Jeannin, Incorporation of Spiroxanthene Units in Blue-Emitting Oligophenylene Frameworks: A New Molecular Design for OLED Applications, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.17, issue.45, pp.12631-12645, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00658322

M. Y. Odoi, N. I. Hammer, H. P. Rathnayake, P. M. Lahti, and M. D. Barnes, Single-Molecule Studies of a Model Fluorenone, ChemPhysChem, vol.8, issue.10, pp.1481-1486, 2007.

). Bo, Y. Liu, H. Soleimaninejad, M. Yu, L. Xie et al., J. Phys. Chem. A, vol.123, p.874, 2018.

C. Wu, T. Liu, W. Hung, Y. Lin, K. Wong et al., Unusual Nondispersive Ambipolar Carrier Transport and High Electron Mobility in Amorphous Ter(9,9-diarylfluorene)s, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.125, issue.13, pp.3710-3711, 2003.

C. Poriel and J. Rault-berthelot, Dihydroindenofluorene Positional Isomers, Accounts of Chemical Research, vol.51, issue.8, pp.1818-1830, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01879768

D. Thirion, J. Rault-berthelot, L. Vignau, and C. Poriel, Synthesis and Properties of a Blue Bipolar Indenofluorene Emitter Based on a D-?-A Design, Organic Letters, vol.13, issue.16, pp.4418-4421, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00632543

M. Romain, M. Chevrier, S. Bebiche, T. Mohammed-brahim, J. Rault-berthelot et al., Solid State Electron, vol.3, p.49, 1631.

M. Romain, D. Tondelier, B. Geffroy, A. Shirinskaya, O. Jeannin et al., Spiro-configured phenyl acridine thioxanthene dioxide as a host for efficient PhOLEDs, Chemical Communications, vol.51, issue.7, pp.1313-1315, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01114444

M. Romain, D. Tondelier, J. Vanel, B. Geffroy, O. Jeannin et al., Dependence of the Properties of Dihydroindenofluorene Derivatives on Positional Isomerism: Influence of the Ring Bridging, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.52, issue.52, pp.14147-14151, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01064867

D. Thirion, C. Poriel, F. Barrière, R. Métivier, O. Jeannin et al., 11, 4794; b), J. Mater. Chem. C, p.3871, 2009.

S. Kappaun, H. Scheiber, R. Trattnig, E. Zojer, E. J. List et al., Defect chemistry of polyfluorenes: identification of the origin of ?interface defects? in polyfluorene based light-emitting devices, Chemical Communications, vol.5170, issue.41, p.5170, 2008.

S. C. Tse, K. K. Tsung, and S. K. So, Single-layer organic light-emitting diodes using naphthyl diamine, Applied Physics Letters, vol.90, issue.21, p.213502, 2007.

F. Goubard and F. Dumur, Truxene: a promising scaffold for future materials, RSC Advances, vol.5, issue.5, pp.3521-3551, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01406245

J. Hu, Y. Pu, G. Nakata, S. Kawata, H. Sasabe et al., A single-molecule excimer-emitting compound for highly efficient fluorescent organic light-emitting devices, Chemical Communications, vol.48, issue.67, p.8434, 2012.

C. Poriel, J. Rault-berthelot, J. Mater, . Chem, . J. C-;-b)-l et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, vol.5, p.3869, 2011.

C. Fan, Y. Chen, P. Gan, C. Yang, C. Zhong et al., Tri-, Tetra- and Pentamers of 9,9?-Spirobifluorenes through Fullortho-Linkage: High Triplet-Energy Pure Hydrocarbon Host for Blue Phosphorescent Emitter, Organic Letters, vol.12, issue.24, pp.5648-5651, 2010.

M. Zhuo, W. Sun, G. Liu, J. Wang, L. Guo et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, vol.3, p.4213, 2015.

Y. Park, V. Choong, Y. Gao, B. R. Hsieh, and C. W. Tang, Work function of indium tin oxide transparent conductor measured by photoelectron spectroscopy, Applied Physics Letters, vol.68, issue.19, pp.2699-2701, 1996.

J. Chang, S. Liu, I. Wu, T. Chen, C. Liu et al., Stability improvement of organic light emitting diodes by the insertion of hole injection materials on the indium tin oxide substrate, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.115, issue.12, p.124510, 2014.

T. Li and R. Chang, Improving the performance of ITO thin films by coating PEDOT:PSS, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, vol.1, issue.4, pp.329-334, 2014.

M. Ye, C. He, J. Iocozzia, X. Liu, X. Cui et al., Recent advances in interfacial engineering of perovskite solar cells, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol.50, issue.37, p.373002, 2017.

H. Kang, J. Kim, J. Kim, J. Seo, and Y. Park, Interface Electronic Structure of a Strongly Electron Withdrawing Molecule on an Indium-tin-oxide Surface, Journal of the Korean Physical Society, vol.59, issue.5, pp.3060-3063, 2011.

S. M. Tadayyon, H. M. Grandin, K. Griffiths, P. R. Norton, H. Aziz et al., CuPc buffer layer role in OLED performance: a study of the interfacial band energies, Organic Electronics, vol.5, issue.4, pp.157-166, 2004.

H. P. Rathnayake, A. Cirpan, P. M. Lahti, and F. E. Karasz, Optimizing LED Properties of 2,7-Bis(phenylethenyl)fluorenes, Chemistry of Materials, vol.18, issue.2, pp.560-566, 2006.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Venkatakrishnan, D. Huang, T. J. Chow-;-b)-l, A. J. Palilis et al., Appl. Phys. Lett, vol.18, p.1563838, 2003.

C. Coya, A. De-andrés, C. Zaldo, A. L. Álvarez, B. Arredondo et al., Full-solution-processed blue organic light emitting device based on a fluorescent 1,3,5-tristyrylbenzene stilbenoid small molecule, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.105, issue.4, p.044510, 2009.

T. H. El-assaad, M. Auer, R. Castañeda, K. M. Hallal, F. M. Jradi et al., Tetraaryl pyrenes: photophysical properties, computational studies, crystal structures, and application in OLEDs, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol.4, issue.14, pp.3041-3058, 2016.

G. Zhang, M. Baumgarten, M. Auer, R. Trattnig, E. J. List-kratochvil et al., Core-and-Surface-Functionalized Polyphenylene Dendrimers for Solution-Processed, Pure-Blue Light-Emitting Diodes Through Surface-to-Core Energy Transfer, Macromolecular Rapid Communications, vol.35, issue.22, pp.1931-1936, 2014.

L. Zhao, C. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Peng et al., Anthracene-Cored Dendrimer for Solution-Processible Blue Emitter: Syntheses, Characterizations, Photoluminescence, and Electroluminescence, Macromolecular Rapid Communications, vol.27, issue.12, pp.914-920, 2006.

J. Kalinowski, G. Giro, M. Cocchi, V. Fattori, and P. Di-marco, Unusual disparity in electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of vacuum-evaporated films of 1,1-bis ((di-4-tolylamino) phenyl) cyclohexane, Applied Physics Letters, vol.76, issue.17, pp.2352-2354, 2000.

M. Li, S. Tang, F. Shen, M. Liu, W. Xie et al., Highly luminescent network films from electrochemical deposition of peripheral carbazole functionalized fluorene oligomer and their applications for light-emitting diodes, Chemical Communications, vol.110, issue.32, p.3393, 2006.

S. Tang, M. R. Liu, P. Lu, H. Xia, M. Li et al., A Molecular Glass for Deep-Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Comprising a 9,9?-Spirobifluorene Core and Peripheral Carbazole Groups, Advanced Functional Materials, vol.17, issue.15, pp.2869-2877, 2007.

S. Tao, Y. Jiang, S. Lai, M. Fung, Y. Zhou et al., Efficient blue organic light-emitting devices with a new bipolar emitter, Organic Electronics, vol.12, issue.2, pp.358-363, 2011.

W. Lai, X. Zhu, Q. He, and W. Huang, Synthesis and Properties of Triphenylamine- and 9-Phenylcarbazole-cored Star-shaped Terfluorenes: Understanding the Effect of Molecular Dimensionality, Chemistry Letters, vol.38, issue.5, pp.392-393, 2009.

W. Lai, Q. He, R. Zhu, Q. Chen, and W. Huang, Kinked Star-Shaped Fluorene/ Triazatruxene Co-oligomer Hybrids with Enhanced Functional Properties for High-Performance, Solution-Processed, Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes, Advanced Functional Materials, vol.18, issue.2, pp.265-276, 2008.

P. A. Levermore, R. Xia, W. Lai, X. H. Wang, W. Huang et al., Deep-blue light emitting triazatruxene core/oligo-fluorene branch dendrimers for electroluminescence and optical gain applications, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol.40, issue.7, pp.1896-1901, 2007.

W. Lai, R. Zhu, Q. Fan, L. Hou, Y. Cao et al., Monodisperse Six-Armed Triazatruxenes: Microwave-Enhanced Synthesis and Highly Efficient Pure-Deep-Blue Electroluminescence, Macromolecules, vol.39, issue.11, pp.3707-3709, 2006.

N. Agarwal, P. K. Nayak, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan et al., Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: New molecules for blue OLED, Synthetic Metals, vol.161, issue.5-6, pp.466-473, 2011.

V. V. Cherpak, P. Y. Stakhira, D. Y. Volynyuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene et al., 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole based single-layer blue organic light emitting diodes, Synthetic Metals, vol.161, issue.13-14, pp.1343-1346, 2011.

J. Keruckas, J. V. Grazulevicius, D. Volyniuk, V. Cherpak, and P. Stakhira, 3,6-Bis(indol-1-yl)-9-phenylcarbazoles as electroactive materials for electrophosphorescent diodes, Dyes and Pigments, vol.100, pp.66-72, 2014.

B. Chen, J. Ding, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, A solution-processable phosphonate functionalized deep-blue fluorescent emitter for efficient single-layer small molecule organic light-emitting diodes, Chemical Communications, vol.48, issue.71, p.8970, 2012.

C. Coya, C. Ruiz, Á. L. Álvarez, S. Álvarez-garcía, E. M. García-frutos et al., Star-shaped hexaaryltriindoles small molecules: Tuning molecular properties towards solution processed organic light emitting devices, Organic Electronics, vol.13, issue.10, pp.2138-2148, 2012.

M. Tsai, Y. Hong, C. Chang, H. Su, C. Wu et al., 3-(9-Carbazolyl)carbazoles and 3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)carbazoles as Effective Host Materials for Efficient Blue Organic Electrophosphorescence, Advanced Materials, vol.19, issue.6, pp.862-866, 2007.

Z. Hotra, P. Stakhira, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, L. Voznyak et al., Photonics Lett. Pol, vol.4, p.35, 2012.

N. Seidler, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, A. Tomkeviciene et al., Influence of the hole blocking layer on blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using 3,6-di(9-carbazolyl)-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole as host material, Applied Physics Letters, vol.96, issue.9, p.093304, 2010.

F. Liu, C. Tang, Q. Chen, F. Shi, H. Wu et al., Supramolecular ??? Stacking Pyrene-Functioned Fluorenes: Toward Efficient Solution-Processable Small Molecule Blue and White Organic Light Emitting Diodes, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.113, issue.11, pp.4641-4647, 2009.

A. Xie, S. Wei, Q. Li, W. Fan, and . Huang, J. Mater. Chem, vol.16, 2006.

Y. Jiang, C. Cheng, J. Huang, L. Feng, X. Guo et al., Pyrenyl-Capped Benzofiurene Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and the Effects of Flexible Side Chains on Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.119, issue.50, pp.28117-28126, 2015.

M. Wang, L. Zhou, M. Yu, C. Liu, S. Chu et al., Amphiphilic conjugated molecules with multifunctional properties as efficient blue emitters and cathode interlayers for inkjet printed organic light-emitting diodes, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol.5, issue.28, pp.7075-7083, 2017.

Y. Zhao, Y. Guo, Y. Liu, ;. Gao, and Y. Hu, C 2014, 2, 3099; c) X. Gao, Z. Zhao, Sc. China Chem, vol.58, p.947, 2013.

Y. Zhang, G. Liu, A. Yu, . Mater, G. Liu et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc, vol.26, p.16176, 2014.

J. Peltier, B. Heinrich, B. Donnio, J. Rault-berthelot, E. Jacques et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol.9, p.3292, 2014.

G. Zhang, M. Auer-berger, D. W. Gehrig, P. W. Blom, M. Baumgarten et al., Blue Light Emitting Polyphenylene Dendrimers with Bipolar Charge Transport Moieties, Molecules, vol.21, issue.10, p.1400, 2016.

S. Zhuang, R. Shangguan, J. Jin, G. Tu, L. Wang et al., Efficient nondoped blue organic light-emitting diodes based on phenanthroimidazole-substituted anthracene derivatives, Organic Electronics, vol.13, issue.12, pp.3050-3059, 2012.

J. M. Hancock, A. P. Gifford, C. J. Tonzola, and S. A. Jenekhe, High-Efficiency Electroluminescence from New Blue-Emitting Oligoquinolines Bearing Pyrenyl or Triphenyl Endgroups, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.111, issue.18, pp.6875-6882, 2007.

R. Shangguan, G. Mu, X. Qiao, L. Wang, K. Cheah et al., Low sublimation temperature cesium pivalate complex as an efficient electron injection material for organic light-emitting diode devices, Organic Electronics, vol.12, issue.11, pp.1957-1962, 2011.

J. M. Hancock, A. P. Gifford, Y. Zhu, Y. Lou, and S. A. Jenekhe, n-Type Conjugated Oligoquinoline and Oligoquinoxaline with Triphenylamine Endgroups: Efficient Ambipolar Light Emitters for Device Applications, Chemistry of Materials, vol.18, issue.20, pp.4924-4932, 2006.

Q. Zhang, D. Tsang, H. Kuwabara, Y. Hatae, B. Li et al., Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency in Undoped Electroluminescent Devices Employing Pure Organic Emitters, Advanced Materials, vol.27, issue.12, pp.2096-2100, 2015.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka et al., Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence, Nature Photonics, vol.8, issue.4, pp.326-332, 2014.

S. Tao, L. Li, J. Yu, Y. Jiang, Y. Zhou et al., Bipolar Molecule as an Excellent Hole-Transporter for Organic-Light Emitting Devices, Chemistry of Materials, vol.21, issue.7, pp.1284-1287, 2009.

Y. Bai, L. Hong, T. Lei, L. Zhang, X. Ouyang et al., Solution-processable, single-layer, blue organic light-emitting diodes employing dual emitting cores of hybridized local and charge-transfer units, Dyes and Pigments, vol.132, pp.94-102, 2016.

T. H. Lee, K. L. Tong, S. K. So, and L. M. Leung, Synthesis and electroluminescence of thiophene-based bipolar small molecules with different arylamine moieties, Synthetic Metals, vol.155, issue.1, pp.116-124, 2005.

K. T. Kamtekar, C. Wang, S. Bettington, A. S. Batsanov, I. F. Perepichka et al., New electroluminescent bipolar compounds for balanced charge-transport and tuneable colour in organic light emitting diodes: triphenylamine?oxadiazole?fluorene triad molecules, J. Mater. Chem., vol.16, issue.39, pp.3823-3835, 2006.

Z. Zhu, S. Ni, W. Chen, M. Chen, J. Zhu et al., Tuning electrical properties of phenanthroimidazole derivatives to construct multifunctional deep-blue electroluminescent materials, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol.6, issue.14, pp.3584-3592, 2018.

C. Poriel, L. J. Sicard, and J. Rault-berthelot, New generations of spirobifluorene regioisomers for organic electronics: tuning electronic properties with the substitution pattern, Chemical Communications, vol.55, issue.95, pp.14238-14254, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02397302

S. Xue, X. Qiu, L. Yao, L. Wang, M. Yao et al., Fully solution-processed and multilayer blue organic light-emitting diodes based on efficient small molecule emissive layer and intergrated interlayer optimization, Organic Electronics, vol.27, pp.35-40, 2015.

L. Duan, J. Qiao, Y. Sun, Y. Qiu, A. Mater et al., 23, 1137; b) H. Jiang, Macromol. Rapid Commun, p.31, 1640.

C. Chen, W. Huang, M. Lai, W. Tsao, J. T. Lin et al., Versatile, Benzimidazole/Amine-Based Ambipolar Compounds for Electroluminescent Applications: Single-Layer, Blue, Fluorescent OLEDs, Hosts for Single-Layer, Phosphorescent OLEDs, Advanced Functional Materials, vol.19, issue.16, pp.2661-2670, 2009.

T. Wong, W. Hou, and . Hung, J. Mater. Chem, vol.9, p.4511, 2007.

K. E. Linton, A. L. Fisher, C. Pearson, M. A. Fox, L. Pålsson et al., Colour tuning of blue electroluminescence using bipolar carbazole?oxadiazole molecules in single-active-layer organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol.22, issue.23, p.11816, 2012.

M. Liu, X. Li, D. C. Chen, Z. Xie, X. Cai et al., Study of Configuration Differentia and Highly Efficient, Deep-Blue, Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Novel Naphtho[1,2-d]imidazole Derivatives, Advanced Functional Materials, vol.25, issue.32, pp.5190-5198, 2015.

Y. Zhang, S. Lai, Q. Tong, M. Lo, T. Ng et al., High Efficiency Nondoped Deep-Blue Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Imidazole-?-triphenylamine Derivatives, Chemistry of Materials, vol.24, issue.1, pp.61-70, 2011.

P. Wang, S. Fan, J. Liang, L. Ying, J. You et al., Carbazole-diphenylimidazole based bipolar material and its application in blue, green and red single layer OLEDs by solution processing, Dyes and Pigments, vol.142, pp.175-182, 2017.

X. Li, X. Ouyang, D. Chen, X. Cai, M. Liu et al., Highly efficient blue and warm white organic light-emitting diodes with a simplified structure, Nanotechnology, vol.27, issue.12, p.124001, 2016.

W. Chen, Y. Yuan, S. Ni, Z. Zhu, J. Zhang et al., Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electroluminescence from a Charge-Transfer Emitter with Stable Donor Skeleton, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol.9, issue.8, pp.7331-7338, 2017.

X. Li, M. Liu, Y. Li, X. Cai, D. Chen et al., Structure-simplified and highly efficient deep blue organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off at extremely high luminance, Chemical Communications, vol.52, issue.100, pp.14454-14457, 2016.

X. Ouyang, X. Li, L. Ai, D. Mi, Z. Ge et al., Novel ?Hot Exciton? Blue Fluorophores for High Performance Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Superhigh Phosphorescent Dopant Concentration and Improved Efficiency Roll-Off, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol.7, issue.15, pp.7869-7877, 2015.

J. Peltier, B. Heinrich, B. Donnio, O. Jeannin, J. Rault-berthelot et al., Modulating the Physical and Electronic Properties over Positional Isomerism: The Dispirofluorene-Dihydroindacenodithiophene (DSF-IDT) Family, Chemistry - A European Journal, vol.23, issue.68, pp.17290-17303, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01671610

). X. Tang, Q. Bai, Q. Peng, Y. Gao, J. Li et al., Chem. Mater, vol.27, p.4957, 2013.

J. Tagare and S. Vaidyanathan, Recent development of phenanthroimidazole-based fluorophores for blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): an overview, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol.6, issue.38, pp.10138-10173, 2018.

M. Lai, C. Chen, W. Huang, J. T. Lin, T. Ke et al., Benzimidazole/Amine-Based Compounds Capable of Ambipolar Transport for Application in Single-Layer Blue-Emitting OLEDs and as Hosts for Phosphorescent Emitters, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.47, issue.3, pp.581-585, 2008.

X. J. Feng, S. F. Chen, Y. Ni, M. S. Wong, M. M. Lam et al., Fluorene derivatives for highly efficient non-doped single-layer blue organic light-emitting diodes, Organic Electronics, vol.15, issue.1, pp.57-64, 2014.

Z. H. Li, M. S. Wong, H. Fukutani, and Y. Tao, Synthesis and Light-Emitting Properties of Bipolar Oligofluorenes Containing Triarylamine and 1,2,4-Triazole Moieties, Organic Letters, vol.8, issue.19, pp.4271-4274, 2006.

R. Muangpaisal, N. I. Hung, J. T. Lin, S. Ting, and L. Chen, Binaphthalene bridged bipolar transporting materials for blue electroluminescence: toward high EL efficiency via molecular tuning, Tetrahedron, vol.70, issue.18, pp.2992-2998, 2014.

M. Zhu, T. Ye, C. Li, X. Cao, C. Zhong et al., Efficient Solution-Processed Nondoped Deep-Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Fluorene-Bridged Anthracene Derivatives Appended with Charge Transport Moieties, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.115, issue.36, pp.17965-17972, 2011.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley et al., Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices, Nature, vol.395, issue.6698, pp.151-154, 1998.

F. Hsu, L. Chien, K. Chen, Y. Li, and S. Liu, High morphology stability and ambipolar transporting host for use in blue phosphorescent single-layer organic light-emitting diodes, Organic Electronics, vol.15, issue.11, pp.3327-3332, 2014.

F. Lucas, O. A. Ibraikulov, C. Quinton, L. Sicard, T. Heiser et al., Spirophenylacridine?2,7?(diphenylphosphineoxide)?fluorene: A Bipolar Host for High?Efficiency Single?Layer Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light?Emitting Diodes, Advanced Optical Materials, vol.8, issue.2, p.1901225, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-02354953

M. Godumala, S. Choi, M. J. Cho, and D. H. Choi, Recent breakthroughs in thermally activated delayed fluorescence organic light emitting diodes containing non-doped emitting layers, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol.7, issue.8, pp.2172-2198, 2019.

T. Lin, T. Chatterjee, W. Tsai, W. Lee, M. Wu et al., Sky-Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode with 37% External Quantum Efficiency Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence from Spiroacridine-Triazine Hybrid, Advanced Materials, vol.28, issue.32, pp.6976-6983, 2016.

K. Udagawa, H. Sasabe, C. Cai, and J. Kido, Low-Driving-Voltage Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices with External Quantum Efficiency of 30%, Advanced Materials, vol.26, issue.29, pp.5062-5066, 2014.