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Pesticides et neurodéveloppement de l’enfant

Abstract : Reports in populations working or living in agricultural areas have associated pesticide exposure with adverse neurodevelopmental effects. More recent longitudinal studies in rural and urban areas have assessed exposure by measuring urine and blood biomarkers in children and mothers during pregnancy, thus allowing effects to be associated with a particular chemical family or pesticide. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine insecticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) is associated with developmental delays and possibly an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in agricultural areas. In Guadeloupe, impairments of fine motor skills in young children, particularly boys, have been associated with maternal concentrations during pregnancy of chlordecone (a persistent organochlorine insecticide formerly used on banana plantations). Studies of cohorts of children from several countries describe various neurodevelopmental impairments associated with the highest maternal concentrations of organophosphates and chlorpyrifos insecticide metabolites measured during pregnancy. These include disturbances in psychomotor development, impaired visual function, cognitive and attention deficits, and behaviors related to ASD. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to newer pyrethroid insecticides is associated with alterations in social and emotional development, cognitive, language and motor deficits, and a possible increased risk of ASD. A possible effect of herbicides such as glyphosate on child neurodevelopment remains to be established. Experimental studies in rodents and fish exposed to insecticide pesticides describe effects on behavior, locomotion and cognitive functions, consistent with the associations reported in epidemiological studies and changes observed in different brain areas. Modes of action such as oxidative stress, alterations in neurotransmission systems, neuroinflammation, changes in gene expression and the diversity of molecular targets may account for the variety of effects reported.
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https://hal-univ-rennes1.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03597675
Contributor : Laurent Jonchère Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, March 4, 2022 - 1:33:16 PM
Last modification on : Monday, August 29, 2022 - 3:49:25 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, June 5, 2022 - 7:09:24 PM

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Etiemble - 2022 - Pesticides e...
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Jeanne Etiemble, Sylvaine Cordier. Pesticides et neurodéveloppement de l’enfant. Environnement, Risques & Santé, 2022, 21 (1), pp.51-65. ⟨10.1684/ers.2021.1615⟩. ⟨hal-03597675⟩

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